HIS 2342 Lecture Notes - Sukarno, Metropolitan France, Moral Authority

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20 Mar 2014
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- We can’t understand the Cold War history without looking at colonization. What this
means understands the historical agency of African, Asian, Latin American and Middle
Eastern Countries in the Cold War.
- They’re making their own course instead of being the object of a US or USSR history.
- It’s important to pay attention to local factors whether they are African, Asian etc… Into
their concerns for independence which may or may not be included into a larger cold war
narrative.
- We can’t look at decolonization as a game to be played by Soviets but a struggle in which
colonized people are the most active participants. He imposes a new reading of the cold
war. Move beyond the Capitalism and Communism to look at local factors in
decolonization struggles whom themselves have no investment in cold war politics.
- The Post-War Decolonization is the 20th century break-up of empires.
- Political decolonisation that involved political negotiations to end colonial relationships.
On the first hand we have a political process is created to put an end to a relationship.
This doesn’t mean these cases are free of violence.
- The other major path of decolonisation is of armed struggle. A war for national liberation.
- We will discuss these two trends with the decolonization that happened with violence.
Indonesia
oSouth-East Asia where two colonial power Netherlands and France dealt with
Thailand and Indonesia.
oDutch authority in Indonesia had been compromised during WWII. Japan
occupied these areas. The Dutch authority had already been challenged. After the
Japan surrender Indonesian nationalists were encouraged to articulate greater
claims for independence.
oSukarno led Indonesian nationalists to proclaim a republic once the Japanese
surrenders.
oIt took weeks of this proclamation to expand and reach the other world because of
the end of WWII.
oHe took advantage of this critical moment before the Dutch could rally
themselves.
oThe Dutch accused the new Republic under Sukarno’s leadership of having
cooperated with the Japanese. He wouldn’t be able to plan all of this without the
Japanese’s help.
oOver the next 5 years they eventually conceded Indonesian Independence even
though they (Holland) received money from the US to fight back.
oThey were unable to assure a strong army victory. The Cold War Context in which
this was taking place meant that in the int. arena Holland was a lonely voice.
oThe USSR et al. Were supporting Indonesian Independence. Every time we had
discussions of what was happening the Eastern Bloc supported Sukarno. The only
other nation supporting the Dutch was France.
Indochina
oIndochina’s independence was similar to Indonesia. Ho Chi Ming used the same
tactic as Sukarno when the French forces left during the War.
oHis declaration of independence for Vietnam borrowed from the US charter of
independence as well as the French Declaration of the men rights.
oThese appeals to the colonizing States are frequent in these types of movements.
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