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University of Ottawa
Jeff Keshen

HIS1101 10/01/11 European Expansion to North America – Effects on Canadian First Nations Leif Eriksson – Newfoundland 1000, first settlements Brother encountered first peoples Distinct disadvantages with the Viking settlements in Newfoundland, due to various issues – around year 1300 King Henry VII – paid for, along with Bristol Merchants paid for an expedition by John Cabot Cabot finds Newfoundland, instead of route to Asia- 1497, teeming with Cod 400 ships mostly from England, Spain, and Portugal etc. etc. started fishing these waters, eventually Cod outposts appeared where the cod would be dried and salted for export to Europe Beothuks moved inland- hoping to fish inland… however European actions devastate their numbers. Beothuks do not exist anymore By the 16 century – past Europe, moving past feudalism, commercial centres and cities emerge. 1453 – Ottoman Turks take Constantinople, thus other routes of trade are needed Nation-states emerge, rivalries, commercial competition, then the renaissance Better ships, magnetic compass, improved astrolabe Jacques Cartier – 1534-1541, visits Canada three times, moving inland, eventually coming to present day Montreal, talks of establishing good relations with first peoples, probably Cartier was dealing with the Laurentian Iroquois, Cartier took back with him native hostages, also talked of the great riches, took back beaver pelts French soon establish colony by Saguenay River, 100km east of Quebec City, beaver pelts were not enough, what was more important was silver and gold, however the minerals brought back was quartz and iron pirate Native Peoples People were diverse, dialect, had both nomadic, sedentary/agricultural societies, could also be relatively egalitarian, or hold slaves like the pacific natives Paleopeoples moving over the land bridge between Alaska and Russia, first societies, women took care of domestic and family matters, men bread bringers Paleosociety – was thought to be relatively egalitarian, not defined as social structure Present day Maritimes: Mikmuq people, about 5000 year history, organized around larger family networks, extended family, form into bands containing several families, with defined religious and belief system… extensive trade network that could of extended to the St. Lawrence river system In BC interior, 2000 year histories have villages that can house up to 1000 people. Hierarchical society Ontario – Iroquois and Hurons: sedentary society had 2000 people villages. First form tribes from kingship networks, next in case of Iroquois, forms confederacy, or Iroquois Nation. As many as 50 chiefs would come in meetings of confederation. Huronia – centre of Huron confederacy, produces surplus of food – particularly corn. These people, by today’s standards would be acceptable today. E.g. Marriage was typically monogamous; divorce could be pursued by either gender. European classed first peoples as savage and warlike. Although true that skirmishes were very common. Europeans were not that different In native warfare, rather than killing captured, it was common for captured prisoners to be integrated back into a group to make up for lost numbers. th th France although declaring lack of interest in 16 century in North America, returned in early 17 century, came back after edict of Naught French establish settlement near Bay of Fundy, eventually called Acadia Samuel de Champlain –father of New France 1608 – Establishes outpost eventually becoming city of Quebec. 1609 – He along with other individuals stay for the winter, however only 9 survives winter, due to scurvy. Establishes military alliance with Hurons, respects native trade patterns, learns about canoes, snowshoes Respects native trade patterns means that Champlain allows the Hurons to act as middlemen for the fur trade, allowing the Hurons to profit by charging a fee for their services… Before the trade would be the gift sharing ceremony Iroquois insists of never fighting other Iroquois, thus becoming a term of training or allying themselves with European powers. The Mourning wars- these early years of contact between Europeans and first nations, it was Canada’s first peoples that had upper hand, however that changes Natives in the fur exchange proved terribly susceptible to alcohol As natives beging to acquire more European weaponary, self disintergration begain… Catholic Church embarked on converting Native Indians – first church officials arriving- Recelas. They don’t learn the dialects; they do not live with the people Jesuits eventually come however appeared, made by self… Jesuits view that the natives hold enough to be converted Jesuits have some successes… Uses technology to get native to join their side European powers had less influence, forcing Europeans inland and as well, forcing their own prices on furs Native women have significant power Marriage between native women and European men inevitable, however double edged sword. Children of mixed blood appear George Simpson, head of Hudson bay company, brings back white women, however if one wants to move up in hierarchy, one would want to marry white women or mixed blood. Disease, whooping cough, measles, decimate plains tribes, decimate their numbers in half. 1851 – Hudson Bay Company and Northwest company merges, streamline operations and thus less job opportunities, less gift giving… th By onset of 19 century bands of natives arrive at trading forts, begging for food and resources… by 1830s, first existence of “native reserves” 12/01/2011 New France - Wealth colony of France starting officially in 1663 until conquest by brits in 1760 - Concept of historiography (history of historical writing) - Modern debate in Quebec about the success of New France in the past, “Can Quebec survive on its own as well?” - Other views: problems with agriculture (inefficient), church had too much control and was anti-business, conquest as well whole explain the issues before 1760 and after 1760 - Impact of France on New France – beneficial?, Society, Government, economy, - No conclusions on what the colony was like, just different interpretations - Fur trade plays critical part in keeping France interested in New France - Initially control and administration of area changes quite a bit. - Initially given over to private concerns, like the company of 100 associates - Company of 100 associates created in 1627 - Develop fur trade and colonize area - Supposed to bring over 300 catholic settlers annually to New France, but failed - 100 associates did not commit enough resources for the fur trade - Sense that France was losing ground in the New world, especially to the English - Growing debt with the company, - Only 200 settlers in New France, 1645 - Company of 100 associates was bankrupt as a result. - Company habitant –new company - Some prosperity due to years of peace established with first nations - Dissatisfaction- anger in colony - 1657 dissent, trade was hurt, due to Jesuits succeeded in goals which was to ban with first peoples the trade alcohol, especially with the Iroquois - New France the time it takes to be a new colony, 3035 inhabitants… - One tenth of where it should have been, if those catholic settlers have been brought up every year as supposed to French Government takes a larger role in New France - Must compete with English colonies in the south - Southern colony has 40000 settlers - 1663, French government sends out 1200 young women. - Le filles de roi trying to encourage settlement - At the time the colony before had only one woman for six months - As well sending contract labourers, work for three years for prominent folks within in colony - Then free after three year contract to establish themselves on the land or etc., significantly The French government will send over in 1665 troops - Complaints developed that France was developing New France solely for the development of the country, not the colony. - Mercantilism – economic system - Thus New France was heavily in difficulty due to this economic system - Illegal trade with the colonies in America French Colonial Government - orders issued by governor in New France - deputy governors in Montreal, Trois Riveres - Governor was to be someone of military background, and aristocracy - Under the governor was the intendant, and deputy intendants, Intendants are placed in Detroit, Montreal, Trois Riveries - Intendant takes care of two major domains, Law and Finance - Under them was sovereign council, renamed superior council in 1703 - All positions are appointed - Land owners, head of Jesuit order would be on the council - Soverigntist view: government in New France compared to other types of Governments at the time wasn’t necessarily that bad. - There are evidence that colonial administrators tried to have good governments such as laws against profiteering - Quebec Nationalist Historians: even though elected assemblies were not created, u still have situations where most communities at least annually where meetings were created where people were allowed to express their grievances to officials. - Legal System- custom of Paris: allowed intendant to intervene in court cases where it was believed that justice was not being served - However if one is a critic: this legal system has assumed guilty until proven innocent, no council, easiness of ways to take advantage of system Society of New France - Critics point to ridgid hieratical structure, based on your connections or position - Also based on religion/religious prejudice - Racial prejudice - At its height 2500 aboriginal slaves, 1500 black slaves in New France, governed and abused under Code Noir - However, the master had the obligation to clothe, feed, and house the slaves… and not supposed to make them work on Sundays, not supposed to separate a slave wife and husband, or kids from parents, and slaves were supposed to be baptised - At its base however, slavery in New France like in other areas were abysmal - A slave can be put to death if hit a member of slave family, a slave that ran away could have her or his ears cropped or be branded, average life expectancy for aboriginal was 18, black slaves 25… - Hierarchy was imposed by catholic church, Church managed schools, orphanages, charity, basically issues of morality and benevolence - Critics would say church imposed tight censorship, banned several public presentations - Nationalist historians however, would argue that church not unchecked in its power - New France was developing at a time when movement of gallokinism- supremacy of crown was successfully competing against ultra-monetarism - Crown was not willing to allow religious authorities to determine policy - Jean Talon, first intendant of New France - Reversed an order imposed in 1657- banning trade of alcohol in fur trade - Lowered the tithe –church tax Economy - By 1700. 75% of folks in New France working are in farming - Principally weak farmers, farms are organized under senoirial system, 16km deep, 16 kms back from water, 8km wide, lots subdivided to narrow strips - Senorial system in existence until 1854 - Critics will say problem with this system, antiquated system - Supporters would say that this system allows for land ownership - Significant amounts of women participated in commerce in New France - Women in New France did have some legal rights, women have control of property that was brought by the wife into the marriage, without permission from the wife. - If husband dies, the wife has right to half the property - Dower rights Did New France ultimately have a progressive economy? - A dynamic bourgeoisie? - Robert Dugard… 17/01/11 Conquest of New France 1760 -resource rivalry, particularly furs th -throughout 17 century Britain increasing presence in North America - Brits beat the Danes and claim New Amsterdam, turn it into New York -Brits launch raids into New France -New France government launches counter raids, tries to increase French presence, competition for fur trade -1750, Treaty of Utrecht, border between New France and British colonies are settled -1731, French expedition out west, establishes forts in Manitoba -French establish walled city of Louisburg. With population of 2000, become one of the busiest commercial centers in the new world. - After three decades of peace 1744-1748, war of Austrian succession due to the lack of a clear male heir to the Hapsburg dynasty -Britain was in support of the rival claim to the Austrian throne. -British take Louisburg with 4000 troops - British also thought about attacking Quebec, could not initiate attack due to uprising in Scotland -1748 War of Austrian succession ends with the treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle -Brits begin to pour money into creation of Halifax -Tensions mounting in west as well -1748, in Appalachian Mountains, discover the Cumberland pass. This enables the settlers to get over the Appalachians and settle in western territory. -direct conflict with French due to treaty of Utrecht -French response with construction of fort Duquesne located near present day Pittsburgh -1754, British respond 100 km away, when George Washington heads up the Virginia militia and For Necessity -7 years’ war, between Britain and France, 7 Years War - New France serious disadvantage, 5% of population of the people of the British colonies - Defended by four types of troops, garrison troops (they hated being there), militia (men ages 16-60 are expected to serve, they lacked resources for decent fighting, as well did not show up due to their obligations on their farms), native allies (often couldn’t be counted upon to mobilize when needed,, and demanded material compensation), and French troops who are sent over in times of emergency (many officers sent over from France had purchased their commissions thus did not garner respect from the men, paid significantly more as well, causing dissention with colonial militia) - Backing both French and British forces, women played significant roles in military organization - Medical assistance, transporting supplies, cooking supplies and harvesting crops. - Greater presence of merchants in British parliament - Crown played more control in France colony, commitment to commercial empire in France was lower due to lesser role that merchants played in France - Prussia had a rivalry with France, and hostilities with France, time of 7 years’ war Prussia was engaged in significant military build-up which meant France had to keep more of its professional army at home - Terms of service for British soldiers were shorter, so morale was higher - At first British still experiences problems… War - Supreme commander of Britain was determined to launch multi-pronged attack on the French, although he did not have enough troops for such a move - Troops were cutting through upper new york state, trying to get to Niagara area - Braddock himself decides to take two months expedition to attack French at Pittsburgh - As he approaches however he is ambushed by various French elements, Braddock himself is killed, suffers 1000 casualties, disastrous result for the British. - French forces were competent in guerrilla warfare - Dieskau, commander of which accepts this sort of warfare was captured early in the war. - French forces as a result pass to Marquis de Montcalm - Montcalm was considered to be one of France’s better military commanders - However Montcalm was classically trained, he was more set piece battles, not very unorthodox - To Montcalm, guerrilla warfare was chaotic, and the hit and run tactics used were incompatible with the notion of warfare at the time. - Montcalm’s belief was that the best hope of New France was to fight a defensive war, to maintain the core of New France - British as a result, had time to establish reinforcements - Under new government in 1757, William Pitt who was determined to keep North America for the British - More reinforcements were sent over, Pitt recalls commander of British North America colonies - Pitt sends over new commander - However British still not doing very well, 12000 French and allies attack, defeat Brits - 1758 Fort Duquesne falls to the British, another bombardment of Louisburg, eventually the city falls - One of fellows leading attack at Louisburg, Jeffrey Amherst impressed with young 32 year old commander – James Wolfe - Wolfe makes decision to attack Quebec - Organizes a bombardment of Quebec city, orchestrates outside of Quebec city scorched earth policy, needs to move fast - Have 12 500 men in total, 1000 are incapacitated by illness, lands his men in two places… - South of the St. Lawrence, and the Isle Orleans - Wolfe chooses land at the Anse du Foulon, French thinks that area is impassable for armies - First boats contained French speaking soldiers that fooled the sentries, daybreak 1759, Battle of the Plains of Abraham - Wolfe decides to have his line thin and long, also tell his men to load extra lead ball in musket… - Defeats Quebec, however harsh winter, but survive due to reinforcements in the spring th - 8 Sept 1760 Jeffrey Amherst accepts terms of surrender from French. Confirmed by treaty of Paris in 1763, ends 7 years’ war… - New France falls to Brits, France retains sugar producing islands in Caribbean, and some fishing rights off grand banks Fallout - French crown looks for excuse, embarrassing for them - Crown focuses on Francois Bigot, saying that corruption abounded, French military was not properly supplied - 1755-1759, expenses grew fourfold, military contracts were grossly inflated, all the nasty stuff that crown said did actually occur. - Bigot was jailed, but all the blame placed on him is convenient excuse, Crown had responsibilities as well - Weakened the colony for years and business of the colony, through the debt it was created under mercantilism - Wouldn’t pay the - Other debate on the fall out, British behaviour after conquest. - French although majority found themselves on the economic disadvantage side - James Murray first governor of Quebec, Murray initially thought in terms of assimilation, in terms of legal and free hold tenure , but Murray who was in charge from 1760-1766 would change his views - He works with the Roman Catholic church, religious rights are retained, Murray would allow unofficially to have French civil law retained - Made enough overtures to French Canada to placate them. Anglo merchants demanded successfully however to have Murray recalled and replaced with military officer Sir Guy Carleton - Who thought in terms of reversing the ideals of Murray - Carleton would be in place until 1783, but he too would make compromises - Such as allowing French civil law, also allow the tithes the Roman catholic church charge - First peoples were also impacted by the change of ownership of Quebec - Native peoples worry about their loss of power, and early 1760s occurred uprising in Midwest under Ottawa chief by name of Pontiac - British forts were attacked, egged on by French traders in area, and over 2000 settlers were killed - British takes 2 pronged attack, British troops are sent to the Midwest, even distribute among natives blankets laced with small pox, proclamation of 1763, establishment of Indian territory, land could not be taken from natives in this territory unless by treaty… - Proclamation was of British intent, - Many historians believe the post conquest period called the Montreal school, to say that New France which becomes Quebec was not backward, was not disadvantaged, but was made that way by the conquest. - Period after conquest, called decapitation thesis… - One of the points of debate did French Canada have dynamic bourgeoisie - But in post conquest Quebec they see little hope for themselves (according to the Montreal School) - Murray needs allies, Carleton needs allies – they go to church and the land owner class - By extending the borders of Quebec, the American colonies are angry because they feel like they’re hemmed in - This leads to one of the factors to rebellion due to Quebec - Out of the rebellion comes the loyalists which settle in Ontario and parts of Quebec, in what becomes 1791 Constitution act splits lower Canada – French, Upper Canada- English - Both colonies have appointed government, council and elected assembly - Francophones dominate assembly in lower Canada, results in rebellions in 1830s 19/01/2011 The Maritimes -economic orientation with Britain New Brunswick: - Economy largely revolves around timber - Thus, Britain did not have to rely on sources from the Baltic states - Setting stage for New Brunswick name as called “Great Britain’s Timber Yard” - 1860s the Maritimes did about three percent of trade with Ontario and Quebec Part B - 1775 12000 living on Newfoundland Island - Acadia was settled back as early as the 1500s - Main early settlers, settled at the St. Croix river, known as Acadians - Most Acadians were farmers - Acadians did not practice senorial system - As a result they produced surpluses for export - Also produced meat, life expectancy was higher of Acadians than that of France - Acadians would like the remain neutral between France and England - In 17 century France controlled large parts of Acadian land - But 1718, this territory comes under British control - The British needed the Acadians for economic and as well social benefits - As a result, accommodation was required to keep the Acadians happy under British control - The British allow the Acadians their church to maintain their rights. - But one thing that consistently upset British, was Acadians refused to take oath of loyalty to British crown - British tried to 1720 to take Oath of Allegiance - Phillips in 1720 makes the first threat, however threat comes to nothing - Acadians refused, call the British bluff, British quietly back down as they would again in 1725 - Rising tensions continue such as the war of Austrian succession - Many Acadians during that conflict was engaging trade with Louisburg - When Louisburg was taken, it was said that some Acadians were found among the defenders - As well skirmishes occurred with the British and the Mik’muq - 1750s governor of Acadia again instigates the threat to Acadians - Charles Lawrence replaced predecessor in 1753 and was determined to make good on the threat to Acadians - Move Acadians away, so that the fertile lands of Acadia be occupied by “more loyal” individuals from New England - 1755 British start to kick out the Acadians - Acadians went all over, from France, to England, to the Caribbean etc. - Many Acadians do lose their language and culture, but many Acadians are also sustained in their exile by family and kingship networks, they persist as a separate people - Rise of Acadian nationalism, by various works of writing by Authors: Acadian flag and anthem - By end of 1750s new group called New England planters come - Their impact is not just economic but also political - Came as a time when a desire for greater democracy was brewing, lobbied British successfully to establish an elected assembly - There were those that were inclined to support revolutionary movements, but most were not of that ilk - “The missing decade thesis” turning colonials into revolutionaries… - Other factors: Stronger British presence in Halifax, Maritimes were scattered along the coast so lack of coordination - Come from different backgrounds - While American revolution was brewing, Nova Scotia was immersed in a large religious revival called the new light movement - Loyalists come to the Maritimes, 32000 come to the Maritimes - Promised at least 100 acres of free land - The image the British wanted to show for the loyalists was that they were the best of the best - However not true, but they did provide significant economic benefits to the areas they went to - Many Loyalists are not motivated by the loyalty to the crown, but rather the opportunity to get free land - Administrators however still want them - New administrative district as a result of loyalist immigration established called New Brunswick, with Fredericton as its centre - However loyalists will bring some dissention, because leading loyalists will dominate the appointed levels of government - Emerging society in Maritimes were black loyalists, 3000 would come to the Maritimes - When African American loyalists arrive, they are segregated in an area called Birchtown - One individual Thomas Peters gets to England, - Many black individuals do leave eventually to settle in west Africa - 1860 650k in area of Maritimes, industry developing, 30 ship builders in St. John New Brunswick - 1853-1866 600km of railway are laid - Professionals are emerging in cities, these individuals push for political reform - Namely to open up opportunities to get rid of the appointed levels of government, make community more democratic and dynamic - Joseph Howe successfully gives Nova Scotia as first part of Canada responsible government - Reform also occurred in P.E.I. - Essentially a land reform movement, the descendants of the absentee landlords, the lord has common obligations to the common folk or the serfs - Assembly passes a bill to force these absentee landlords to sell of their property, group called the tenants party that gets into power in 1851 24/01/2011 The Loyalists: Anglo English origins of Ontario - Notion of loyalists of being the crème of the crop - In 1783, it is clear that the Americans are going to win the revolutionary war - Loyalists gather in Boston, New York etc. Loyalists disembark - Britain made some efforts to protect loyalists and property, Americans made some vague promises, however the loyalists had to leave quickly - Often Loyalists were forced out/chose to leave - 1783, Governor in Upper Canada Frederick Haldimand: is not anti-French - Loyalists were not good fit for settlement in Lower Canada because they would not accept senorial system, or French civil law. - Upper Canada created 1791 constitution act - Haldimand secures upper Canada for the British crown by settling the loyalists in the area, preventing incursion from the newly created United States - (Many first nations believed that although land was ceded to the British, but they still believed that the land was still theirs, and thus access to still hunting and fishing.) - Many deals between Britain and First Nations were atrociously one sided. - Six nations reserve under Joseph Brandt, not all Iroquois went to the reserve, splitting the six nations - On reserve, British provide church, school, grist mill (turns wheat into flour): obviously Brits trying to encourage assimilation - Brandt was actually quite Europeanized - Believed that the best route forward for his people was to attend these schools, farm land (individual farming): although not the method of how nations farmed, 1798 only one third of people who settled there had retained their property… - White loyalists were (obviously) treated much better - When arriving in Upper Canada, they received temporary shelter, food, seed and basic farm equipment, land grants as well (at least 100 acres) - Was a struggle for many of them to get established, that struggle is often emphasized in earlier historian accounts - Ontario was vastly underdeveloped when the loyalists arrived - Controlled burning of the land was the method of clearing the land, obviously that has its own issues - Goal for most in first year is to build a simple log cabin with dirt floor and no windows and enough land cleared in order to obtain subsistence - Women not only had to tend house, but house also had to be self-sufficient, clothing, candles, soap, butter etc. all had to be made at home - Often in fields, seeding and harvesting - When husband takes goods to market, sometimes they would be away for weeks… leaving women to tend to farm - A family operation - With time however, progress was made… upper Canada begins to thrive, establishing before the 1700s are out a notable export trade - By 1791 establishment (legally) of Upper Canada through the constitution act… creating two colonies, Upper (Anglo) Canada and Lower (French) Canada Who were the loyalists? - Loyalists often present themselves as the crème of American society in folklore - Loyalists headed after American revolution to England, or the Caribbean or Canada - Other loyalists as well, blacks, natives, servants etc. - Many black loyalists eventually end up as farm labourers - Depending
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