2 decades international tension 1919-1939
All nations fell into one of two classes
One class is those who favoured the peace settlement of 1919
And those who wished to revise it
States that lost demanded more equity and access to markets
France led the first group, with the French army, the gold standards; they thought they would
guarantee the stability of Europe.
Poland was recreated, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Yugoslavia benefited from the treaties
They formed an alliance with one another and with France
These states wanted to maintain the treaties
Holland, Portugal, Denmark, Switzerland, Belgium- Holland, Portugal, and Belgium relied on the
Royal Navy for support of their empires. Switzerland and Denmark maintained their neutrality
Germany led the revisionists. Germany lost 1/8 of its European territory, in addition to its
colonies, as well 1/10 of its population
The Versailles Ditkat
Austrians and Hungarians formerly the privileged groups of the Hapsburg Empire. Shared
Also Italy was on the revisionist side, due to being unsatisfied for the gains made for
participation in WWI
France and Britain grew to be rivals, did not stand together on all aspects of treaty revision.
Russia as a result of the war lost all the Baltic States, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, as well part of
France wanted to use the league of nations to freeze treaty of Versailles
Problem with League of Nations, where the universality?
League of Nations were used by France or Britain during initial League of Nations
Some nations started to resign from the league, starting with Japan.
Two minor states: Greece and Bulgaria about to go to war, League of Nations intervened
League of Nations mostly had no serious interest between Greco- Bulgarian conflict
Threatened both countries with facing the League of nations
Treaty of Locarno -1925 guaranteed the borders of Europe. Britain, France, Germany, Italy.
Briand- Kellogg pact- 1928, treaty outlawing aggressive war
1929, great depression
1928 Japan invaded Manchuria
1935- Italy invades Abys