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HIS1110 (98)


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Henry Habib

HIS1100 Remaking of nations India and China  English East India company –from 1600 – 1857 the British ruled India indirectly through this company  Appointed a governor general at Calcutta, there is also a minister for India, and has a council assisting the governor general  In the provinces, establishes provincial governors  Britain controlled 3/5 of India, the remaining 2/5 were controlled by Indian princes  The princes were under British protection, basically protectorates.  FA and Finances were not under the princes’ jurisdiction  This is all after 1857  India was not easy to govern, had to keep a balance of power between the provinces, especially the states with princes  Various sects in India, as well as classes  Keep peace between the landowners and the people working on the land, a feudal system  Take into consideration Hindu customs, other religious rights, etc etc etc  India in 1750 had 140 million people  In 1850 – 250 million people  1900 – 330 million people, by 1945- 400 million people  Standard of living in India remained low  Mercantile and aristocratic class was growing, despite the masses of people remaining poor  During WWI, India remained loyal with Britain, and fought with the British  And also during WWII  As a result Britain made concessions to the nationalist demands  Started speaking in terms of self rule  Government of India act- Indians were to receive a larger share in local government  Also wanted to establish a “parliament” aka legislative assembly  Britain continued to control the judicial system, foreign affairs, the police and military  Became the centre of nationalist resistance, most influential leader was Mahatma Ghandi  Congress party  Ghandi wanted a state mainly controlled by the Hindus, Muslims reacted to this and created the Muslim League – Ali Jinnah the leader – eventually establishes Pakistan  Ali proposed a two state solution, Hindu and Muslim.  Passive resistance, civil disobedience, non-violence  Even though Ghandi was incarcerated, he relied on non-violence and non-cooperation to achieve his means.  Britain refused to grant further concessions.  1930, Ghandi sent to jail again  Great Depression in 1929 – increased suffering among the Indians  Unemployment rose, rise of the unions  Joined in calls for Indian independence  Round Table Conference of 1930  New Government of India act was passed 1935– more liberal in a sense compared to 1919  Act was not put into practice until 1937  Created a new Indian federation composed of Indian states
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