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Lecture 5

HIS 1110 – Lecture 5 part 2.docx

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University of Ottawa
Henry Habib

HIS 1110 – Lecture 5 Part 2 Peace Settlement of 1919 Treaty of Versailles War was over, great hope for the future A transition to a new era would be made in peace, smooth and full of hope - Unfortunately, bitterness arose - People were thinking in ideal terms - They considered that they should put an end to aberrance and the spirit of militarism - They should give self determination to those who are oppressed - Should organize a League of Nations The President of the USA, Wilson, played a giant role in all of this - He made statements to that effect - He realized that it was Americas entry that gave the Allies the victory - He stated that America had no selfish ends to serve, no imperial ambitions, it had no conquests (didn’t want territory), no domination, no indemnities for themselves (don’t want anything from the people the conquered), no material compensation for their sacrifice, and that America would champion the rights of mankind. - He brought about 14 points which were the guide to others - These 14 points should be followed 14 Points 1. Opened covenants (treaties), that there should be no secret treaties. He said that the world should have an open work. There should not be any secrets that the nations are not aware of. 2. The absolute freedom of the sea in peace and war. (One reason why US got into WWI) The sea belongs to no one, it is international and nations of the world have the right to sail on the sea. 3. The removal, as far as possible, of all economic barriers (free trade) as much as is possible. 4. A reduction of national armaments. This is in the spirit of bringing down militarism. 5. The impartial adjustment of all colonial claims. They should be divided impartially. 6. To secure Russia’s old political development. (Because the Boshlavik’s had taken over) 7. The restoration of Belgium’s neutrality 8. To free all French territories and return Alsace-Lorraine to France 9. Re-adjustment of the frontiers of Italy along lines of nationality 10.The peoples of A-H are to be accorded an opportunity of autonomous development. 11.Romania, Serbia and Montenegro were to be restored as independent states. (All were occupied by the German’s at that point) 12.Portions of the Ottoman-Empire (mainly Turkey) were to be assured a secure sovereignty, while other nationalities under Turkish rule would be allowed self-governance/autonomous independence 13.An independent Polish state free and secure with access to the sea should be brought back to Europe. 14.A general association of nations was to be created. (Mainly the League of Nations) These 14 points were a guideline to the powers of the Treaty of Versailles. There were 3 leading figures at Versailles American President, Woodrow Wilson - Spokesman French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau - Nationalist British Prime Minister, David Lloyd-George The question here was; who would come to Versailles? Who would be allowed to come discuss these matters? Were they going to have a just peace? Would the people of Versailles bring about a just peace? Would they define war guilt and punish Keizer Wilhelm II and his supporters for crimes against humanity? Would we abolish secret treaties (Sykes-Picot)? What will we do with the German colonies? Wilson, leaving the USA by boat, went over to Paris, and made a statement that the war of 1914-18 would be the “war to end all wars.” A humorist commenting on this statement said, “At Versailles, we will have a peace to end peace.” The Versailles Treaty - First meeting took place on January 19, 1919. - It was to end June 28, 1919. (Note, the Archduke was assassinated on June 29, 1914). - In defiance of diplomatic usage, the 4 defeated nations (Germany, Turkey, A- H and Bulgaria), were excluded. (Note: A-H had been split in two at this time). The lesser Allies also didn’t play a significant role (Belgium and Serbia). - The real masters of Versailles were the Big Four: Britain, France, America, and Italian Orlando. - Form January-May, they worked on the treaty. The
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