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Lecture 8

HIS1110 – Lecture 8.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS1110
Professor
Henry Habib

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HIS1110 A – Lecture 8 Turkey The only treaty that the Allies were not able to impose was _____ Treaty of Lausanne The definition of the state: How do you define the state? - A geographic society with people more or less with the same language, history, culture - France, as a common history, language, culture - You may have minorities in a nation state, but it represents more or less a homogeneous people, a people belonging to a particular ethnicity/race - Didn’t call it a nation state, it was called an ‘umma’ o Not referring to any ethnicity or geographic entity, but is a community of believers o Muslim people who belong to the same religion, whatever their race/ethnicity is, if they are a community of believers - The Muslim state/ottoman state recognized them as minorities with certain rights o Can run own rules on marriage, own rules on divorce, own rules on inheritance o Only recognized the two monotheistic religions Mustapha Kemal - Going to accept the western definition of state o Breaking away from the community of believers o Accepted the western notion that they are Turks first, and then Muslims o Quit the ethnicity of the group o Turkey said ‘this is how we become modern, we are abandoning the notion of the community of believers’  Radical change that meant that;  1. They abolished the title of Sultan o 1922  2. Felt that they shall allow the Caliph to continue as a religious leader, but he will have no emperor power, 1924 o Abolished the Caliph o Trying to make a radical change; Muslims were upset about that saying that he had no right to abolish the Caliph o Rebelled against Kemal  In 1928, there was a man named Banna who said ‘how dare he abolish the Caliph’ and established the position of Muslim Brotherhood o From 1928-2012, they tried to take control of Egypt, and finally they did Islam rejected the separation of church and state  As a result, the faith penetrates all aspects of life  They are all controlled by religion in a sense  Controlled all things by Islamic laws  Government, commerce, peace, sex, marriage/divorce, food, attire, war, are all regulated by the faith and the Koran, or the practice of the profit (hadith) o Not only prayer/pilgrimage o Part of the custom of these communities o Consequently, all the reforms that Kemal was going to bring about, had a relationship to Islam Kemal Reforms:  The first was abolishing the Sultan  The second was abolishing the Caliph  The third was the abolishment of Islamic laws Judicial reforms (1926) swept aside religious courts and replaced them with Swiss civil law and Italian Penal Court. They changed the whole judicial system. They remove all laws of the Muslim faith and replaced them. This meant that they disqualify all the religious judges (Ulama). They didn’t know Swiss/Italian law, they were only trained in Islamic law. These people had virtual monopoly. They lost all qualifications. Schools teaching Islamic law were closed. In 1928, they made it official where Turkey became a secular state. Until then, they kept it a Muslim state. The state and the religion became separated. You could not teach any religious business.  The fourth they abolished the Muslim calendar In 1926, they abolished the Islamic calendar. (622 AD = 1AH, 1926 – 1342 AH)They said ‘no longer to we have the Muslim calendar, you are no longer allowed to use it!’ This was another step away from the East towards the West. They wanted to be part of Europe, and this would get them closer to the West by using the Gregorian calendar. At this point, under these reforms, they decided that the capital of Turkey would no longer be Istanbul/Constantinople, but the heart of Turkey, Ankara, became the capital. It was more cosmopolitan and open to other cultures. Istanbul has so many mosques, Ankara did not have that, and they wanted to represent a secular Turkey.  The fifth reform was that they used the Arabic alphabet The Turks and the Iranians used the Arabic alphabet, and Kemal said ‘no more.’ They wanted to become westernized. Everyone from age 5-80 had to learn the new alphabet, the Latin script. They built schools everywhere to teach the new language. This brought about more people having to go to school to learn the language. This all came about in 1928. He then ordered the translation of the Koran to Turkish, and you recited the Koran without knowing what it said if you were a Turk because they didn’t know Arabic. In the Muslim world, they use Arabic because that’s what the profits spoke. (Arabic similar to Latin in Catholicism)  The sixth reform was abolishing all titles (Britain still has them, not allowed in Canada) For example, in many Eastern European countries, they use names like ‘Bey’, ‘Pasha’, ‘effendi’ etc… and they were abolished. All titles are to be abolished in Turkey in 1934! At the same time, he said that they had to adopt family names. At that point, they didn’t have family names. - Attaturk (Mustapha Kemal) father of the Turks, only 57 when he died - The Turks mourned him until today  A seventh reform was to abolish Turkish attire for men Men used to wear robes. They want them all to wear hats, not good for religion because some clothes are not meant for this!  The eighth reform was to abolish the veil that women wear He said to women ‘you no longer wear veils; you don’t cover your faces! If you came into a government building/university, you would not be able to enter!” He strongly supported women, in 1934, he gave them the right to vote. He wanted them to be teachers, office workers, even members of the general assembly! He was also accused of being a womanizer and of drinking a lot (what killed him!)  A ninth reform was to abolish Mosque schools All education was under the control of the clergy and beside each mosque there was a school. In small towns, the mosque was used as a school for teaching children the Koran, pray, perform rituals - many special schools were Egyptian type schools - Kemal took away education from the Clergy  A tenth reform was to abolish the day of rest and turn it to Sunday Turkey now recognized Sunday as the day of rest, not Friday. 1.3 billion Muslims see Friday as the day of rest. Said if Friday was kept, you would have a lot of business (because half of Thursday and Friday would be off, and Europe had the weekend off) - Said what day doesn’t matter - Wanted a Saturday at noon, to Sunday at noon (weekend) - The logic dictates the economy of the country that Friday is not good for business, because you only work 4 days and you cannot afford an economy that only works 4 days  Established constitution in 1924 for Turkey o In form Turkey was a democracy, but not in fact o 20 years or o, he governed Turkey by use of one party system (Republican People’s Party) o Turkish nation represented by the Grand National Assembly (elected every 4 years, only one party) Had to fight to get the seat, but once you got it, it was yours. o MK was a democrat in reality, most of Turks were peasants, so they had to be taken slowly into democracy  In 1930, they decided to test that Reform was much more drastic than India 1930 – Fethi Bey Liberal party – run in an election and see how the people will react Not everyone was happy with these reforms. In 1925, there was a rebellion against them, and yet they did not know everything he was going to go. Mainly the conservative religious groups said ‘he’s changing the whole country, state, our customs!! We want the Caliph back!’ The Kurds joined them, but MK said to them ‘you are Turks’ He called them ‘Mountain Turks’ The Conservative groups and the Kurds rebelled against him in 1925, and M Kemal crushed them! Kemal was a nationalist! The majority of people loved him because they remember 2 things about them - He was a hero at Gallipoli - He saved Turkey from the Greeks and the Allies He was their leader! They felt that he saved the nation, he was an ultra-nationalist! Some people said he was an atheist, but it was not established that he was. 1935 – he allowed certain individuals to run as independents 6 were elected to the GNA. 1938 – died His successor, Inorid 2 decades of international tension After 1919, not only the great powers, but almost all the nations of Europe, tended to form into one of two classes; (2 different categories of states) 1. Those who favor the peace settlement (Those who favor Versailles) 2. Those which hope to revise it The states that benefited favor the retention of the frontiers (France, Britain), favor the retention of existing frontiers. The states that have lost territory demanded more equity and better access to markets. France lead the first group, they kept a strong army, gold was the basis of their currency. Lesser stat
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