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Lecture 10

HIS 1110 A - Lecture 10.docx

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University of Ottawa
Henry Habib

HIS 1110 A – Lecture 10 GERMANY  On August 1, 1934, the president of Germany passed away o Gave Hitler the opportunity to merge the presidency and the chancellorship o Did not like the title Chancellor, but preferred the Furner o Wanted to show the people that they made the decision o 16% voted no, the rest voted yes to merging the presidency and chancellorship  In July 1933, all political parties were banned by law o Only the Nazi party was allowed to operate o Later that year, December 1, 1933, the party and the state were legally united  There is no difference between the party and the state o This was called the Law to Safeguard the Unity and Party  He also abolished the Reishtat (upper house) by decree in February 1934  The Nazi laws were to be operated  The secret police was also established at this point. The Gustapo was a special police, and in addition to it, there was a special branch called the SS (the super police)  He had problems with the left wing of the Nazi party. It included in its full German name socialists, and he wanted to purge the socialist element from the Nazi party. These people, the people on the left, wanted the party to intervene in the economy of Germany, wanted them to guide the economy  Hitler did not care about economists o What he was interested in was mainly power, accumulating it o He in a sense, was saying to big business in Germany “I wont touch you if you serve the nation. Do your job as business people and I will not interfere in your work” o His left wing was annoying him  There was an officer in the left wing named Captain Roehm o He’s the man who founded the Brown shirts  A group of young gangs in the 1920s who would operate to disrupt the affairs of other parties  Wore the German cross and brown shirts  They were hoodlums  They became quite powerful because they played a social role in Germany  They maintained that the Nazi party was incomplete because it didn’t have a socialist party o Captain had a group of men that were ‘his’ (he trained them)  Another man who annoyed Hitler was Strasser  They continued their attacks on “Reaction” o Such as capitalists, conservatisms, Jünkers (noblest), everything that had class they attacked  Hitler became uneasy with his associates (particularly Roehm) o They were armed and could bring about damage o A nuisance for Hitler  Hitler organized the SS to counter them, under Himler o Himler was the head of the SS and Hitler have him a mandate to  Hitler got closer to the Army and he promised them that he would keep them intact if they supported him against the Brown Shirts o “I wont interfere with your work, you could be independent of the Nazi party, you are all professionals, but if I have trouble with the Brown Shirts, you’ll come and help”  At one point, Roehm invited top four hundred officers of the Brown shirts to a big party. The SS knew about that and Hitler gave Himler the order to massacre these 400 people o They were drunk, having a great party, enjoying themselves, and suddenly, the SS broke into their compound and massacred the 400 leaders of the Brown Shirts o This ended the trouble that the Brown Shirts could have given him o Roehm also died here  Following that, he also got rid of Strasser  Catholic leader Bruning and von Papen fled Germany  They got rid of “good families”  Hitler explained to the Reishtag that he had not been able to allow the army to be molested o The Brown Shirts had been tyring to take place of the army and that’s why he got rid of them o He promised to the president (Von Hindenburg) that the Army would be the only bearer of arms o The Army would be intact o The Army became Hitler’s when Hindenburg died  The Cabinet recognized that they were Hitler’s mere executive officers o Take orders from the Furor o If they don’t take orders, Hitler would shoot then  The Reishtag was maintained o Elections were held regularly (the last in 1938) o Only Nazi candidates were allowed to represent themselves o “A democracy lead by the Volk”  The Nazi used plebiscites very often o Hitler said that they had pure democracy because they were asking the people to ratify the chancellorship and the presidency  Federalism was abolished in April 1933 and the Furor appointed state governors in each province who was simply the regent of Hitler  He transferred all the powers of the states to the central government (all were in the hands of Berlin)  The governors remain administrators  The civil service (Bureaucracy) was taken over by the Nazis and jobs were only offered to the followers of the Nazi regime  The judges were taught to judge always in the interest of the German nation o Put yourself in the place of the Furor and ask yourself what the Furor would decide o They are subservient  Local government also came under Nazi control o All the people are appointed by the Nazi minister  The Nazi party was made “the bearer of the state”  It merged the party and the state  Germany organized youth affiliated with the party, the “Hitler Youth” o If you were in high school/elementary school, you were drafted o You had no choice, you had to be a member of Hitler’s youth o Children from 6-18 were drafted into the Hitler Youth o You could not exempt yourself, neither could your parents o The youth were to be trained for political leadership  They studied Race Biology, history and current affairs  Vast powers were vested in the police, particularly Himler and the SS  In economics, Hitler wanted complete maximum control over not the business directly, but what they would produce for the nation  There were 6 million people unemployed in Germany in 1933 when Hitler took office. By 1936, everyone was employed. o He was rebuilding the industry of Germany, going against what Versailles had said o Jobs were provided for building a war machine, business cooperated o In addition, he build a network of roles and infrastructures in Germany  Roads and autobahns are the superhighways that Germany was known for  Build hospitals and schools everywhere o Brought about the Volkswagen (became Hitler’s jewel)  Business supported him because they felt that he was not interfering with them making money and was not taxing them, but rather preparing the country for war and infrastructures  Strikes were forbidden and the Nazi Creed was the Dignity of Labor o Very nationalistic o Doing everything for the Volk  There was complete regimentation o Everyone was moving in one direction o The schools and universities were made instruments of the aprty o Even the Protestant Lutheran church was seduced  “You are German before you are Christian”  The only exception was the Roman Catholic church who resisted and fought Hitler at the price of persecution  Pope Pius 12 gave orders to all monasteries in Europe to gave refuge to every Jew who sought it o Hitler played with the idea of bombing the Vatican because they were a nuisance to him o Paganism was preached and there was a sort of an Arian Nordic pagan freed from the Judaic Christian tradition of the doctrines of charity and peace  When someone slaps you, turn the other cheek  Contrary to German values  The SS guards became the bearers of that cult  All in all, Hitler during the period 1933-39, were 6 very active years where he tried to ascertain German dominance Germany recovered very quickly because of Hitler Hitler tore the Versailles Treaty and said that they were not bound by it anymore Hitler created what we call the Third Reich (empire) 1st Reich – Holy Roman Empire o Partly in Germany and France at one point o Created in 962 and abolished by Napoleon in 1805 2 Reich – 1871-1918 Weimar Republic o 1919-1933 3 Reich – 1933-1945 o Said it would last 1000 years, lasted 12 Bonn-Republic (German Federal Republic 1949- ) German Democratic Republic – 1949-1991 **All authoritarian Governments (communists, fascist, Nazi), emphasize the state over the individual. This is the essence/collectivity over the individual. All means are to serve the collectivity. The individual doesn’t count and is only a part of the whole, which is more important that the part. In a sense, extreme nationalism is fascism. Nationalism is good in a sense that you have to be patriotic to your nation…but you don’t put it above yourself. The Nazis conducted their relations against races (people who they think are different) BRITAIN After WWI, had at least 4 problems 1. Economic and political problems o had gained more by WWI than any other great European power o Infrastructure was intact o Her most dangerous trade rival (Germany) was crushed o Her Navy was strengthened by the destruction of the German Fleet o She got the major share of German colonies in Africa, Pacific o But, it also lost 700,000 British soldiers in various theatres of conflict (the youth of Britain)  Its civilian population escaped the horrors of invasion  Where did the problems come? (except losing 700,000 soldiers)  Much of its shipping was destroyed by German submarines during WWI  Its debt had risen  Nations that had loans from Britain were not collected  Japanese textiles competed with the British o Markets of China and India  Their shipyards lay idle  In 1921, 2 million Britain’s were unemployed  The 1907 and 1911 Social Insurance Acts were inadequate for the unemployed o Did not receive sufficient unemployment benefits o Taxes were constantly rising between 1921-31  Farmers were neglected o Became a minority  The 1929 depression hit Britain badly o Her currency was depreciated and as a result, the politics of Britain were affected  PM David Lloyd George was defeated in 1922 o Created economic turmoil o Going to bring about coalition/minority governments  In 1923, the country was split o Conservatives had 258 eats o Labor 192 o Liberals 158 o Nobody had a majority  This government brought about a coalition between liberals and labor and for the first time, we had a socialist as prime minister in 1923  President Ramsey Macdonald wanted to lower tariffs and sign trade treaties with toe Soviets  1924 the conservatives won the election o Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin  1924-1929  In 1929, again we had a coalition/minority government o This time, labor and liberals joined under Macdonald again o Only lasted 2 years  In 1931, Macdonald left the labor party and presided over a conservative liberal coalition and ran the show from 1931-1935 o The labor was opposed to him, but he was the leader of the labor  In 1935, Stanley Baldwin came back from 1935-37 o He resigned in 1937 and was replaced by Chamberlain  Chamberlain – 1937-40  1940-1945 Winston Churchill takes over 2 Problem – A Constitutional Problem  A very tricky problem o Deals with the Royal Family Victoria 1837-1901 Edward VII 1901-1910 George V – 1910-1936 Edward VIII – 1936 George VI – 1956-1952 Elizabeth II – 1952 - present  Edward VIII became the monarch of Britain in 1936  Raised a problem with marriage o Wanted to marry an American twice divorced, Mrs. Simpson o The British parliament told him that he couldn’t do that, and he would have to step down o He was madly in love with her, and said he would give up the throne and resigned o His younger brother became George VI  Was not prepared for the job, but did an excellent job  George VI o Stuttered (had to control it) o Remarkably courageous man o The coronation was in 1937, but he took office in 1936-1932 o Went to visit Hitler 3 Problem – Ireland  Major problem that goes back centuries  They had been conquered by Britain at the time  The British has set up one province (Ulster) that was colonized by people from Scotland (Prespeterians) and Ireland (Catholic) o In that particular province, you had a majority of Protestants, and the rest of Ireland is Catholic  The people of Ulster are loyal to Britain, largely Protestant (70%) and want to remain part of the UK  Ireland nationalist theory was expressed in a movement known as Sinn Fein o Means “We Ourselves” in Gaelic  In 1916, a group of Irish Patriots attempted to proclaim an Independent Irish Republic after years of grievances  Easter Rebellion of 1916 o Irish people rose and wanted their independence o The rebellion was crushed ruthlessly o This created a crisis with Irish members of Parliament who sat on the House of Commons  In 1918, they refused to take their seats in Westminster o Instead, they established an independent Irish parliament in Dublin o Presided by a man called De Valera who wanted Irish independence  Britain said no, you sit in Westminster o Don’t recognize their independence  A civil war followed between 1918 and 1921  Finally, on December 6, 1921, a treaty was signed between the Republicans and the British government  In 1922, the Irish Free State was recognized by Britain and received dominion status and membership in the League of Nations o Yet the deputes/members of Irish Parliament, had to take an oath to the British Monk while military and foreign police
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