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Lecture 11

HIS 1110 A – Lecture 11.docx

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University of Ottawa
Henry Habib

HIS 1110 A – Lecture 11 Monday, November 25, 13 Earlier in the century, the American’s followed a policy under President Taft (1909- 1913) - Indicated to secure the private economic interest in the USA - There was a reaction to that by the Latin Americans because this policy was based on ‘dollar diplomacy’ o Meant that if the dollar was in danger, the Americans would send in the marines to secure the interest (particularly in Central America) o The reaction to that came from some of the Latin states (particularly Argentina)  There were 2 particular elements 1. Calvo Clause  If for example, an American company signed a contract with a Argentina, the Calvo (an Argentinian Jurist) even if it wasn’t mentioned in the contract, it was implied that the American company would go to local courts before it would go to the US for an intervention  Said from now on, every contract that is signed in Latin America has the implication that you will first go to local tribunals  They did not want to see the local jurisdiction ousted o Felt that it was vital  Even if we do not mention that clause in a contract, it is implied that there is a Calvo Clause  Latin America was trying to protect themselves 2. Drago Doctrine  Drago – foreign minister of Argentina  This doctrine was brought in because of the frequency in which Latin American governments were found in default for not paying its debts  Was introduced to look after this particular situation  What happened often (for example) if Guatimala didn’t pay its debts, the US could intervene to get the debts paid (for example control customs) o Drago doctrine said they had no right to intervene to collect debts o Especially armed intervention  It does not preclude diplomatic action o In other words, the Latin Americans were trying to insert a Calvo clause and a Drago Doctrine into every contract Latin Americans were always worried about interventions in their affairs. Europeans could not intervene because of the Monroe Doctrine, but the US could. In 1936, president Roosevelt set up a new policy which was called the Good Neighbor Policy. The objective of this policy was to improve the countries tarnished relationship with Latin Americans, to deflect criticism of the US. The US said they should not intervene because they are good neighbors. The United States, after 1919, went into a period of isolationism.  They were responsible for the establishment with the League of Nations and refused to join  The US, from 1919-1941, remained with this policy of isolationism o They did not want to meddle with European affairs o (What George Washington said – not to meddle)  Manifest destiny where they are expanding in US continental boarders, but that was it.  It was a mistake that they got involved in WWII. WWII 1939 – Poland had a population of 30 million people and a large conscript army - The poles were prepared for a war - There was little hope they could resist an attack by German mechanized units and air power - Poland was a small state at the time  Britain and France, who had signed an alliance with Poland, could provide no direct material aid. Geographically, there was no way they could reach Poland, even though they committed themselves to defend them. The Soviet Union had signed a pact with the Nazis to partition Poland. - Poles couldn’t get help from the S.U. and even though they signed a pact with Britain and France, they could not help them.  Poland, in addition, lacked defensible boarders. They sit in the great European plain. They were sitting in a situation, like a prairie, in an open field. You could march into Poland with no obstacles. - Within a month, Germany helped the Western Half of the Defunct Republic - Started their attack on December 1 - Soviets entered the war against Poland on December 17 and helped the Eastern half of Poland  By the end of September, Hitler hoped that he could arrange a peace settlement with Britain and France. He felt that the British and the French would not do anything at this point. Britain and France looked at it differently. They considered that they had the WWI ling (Maginot Line), which were lines that they build during WWI with trenches. They felt that they were impregnable, and that you could not pass. The British felt that Germany was also safe because of the waterfronts. Both Britain and France waited 6 months, trusting that a sea blockade would weaken Germany (German's would give in), and they would win the war.  From October 1939 – April 1940, there was no fighting. This was called the Phony War Period. Nobody was fighting.  On April 9, 1940, Germany struck again. A lightning thrust into Denmark North. Nobody expected that. They had an air and seaborne of Norway after that o Two Scandinavian countries o They won both countries in 2 weeks – a very quick victory o They took over Denmark and Norway and nobody did anything  One month later, on May 10, 1940, they struck Holland (even though they are the country that gave the country), Belgium and Luxembourg o Speedy, efficient victory o Speed and strength o Holland was crushed in less than one week (had not fought in WWI and were not prepared) o Belgium capitulated by May 28 o They wanted Belgium because it would be easy to invade France, more importantly, Paris  The French had prepared for a war of siege (like WWI), but they would be wounded by a war of movement  The Maginot line of defense (with the trenches and so on), was pierced by giant tanks and mechanized infantry and completely flabbergasted the French  German forces swept through Northern France, and both British and French forces fell back in disorder (complete chaos)  British forces that were there withdrew to Dunkirk (the port that they evacuated to go back to the British Aisles)  There was a massive evacuation of British forces by June 4, 1940  On June 10, Italy decided to enter the war on Germany’s side o They Italians saw that Germany was winning, and felt that unlike 1914-15, where they switched because they thought Germany wasn’t winning  On June 17, 1940, the French High Command asked for an Armistice o The French National Assembly met and decided to dissolve the third republic (existed since 1975) and vested authority in a WWI hero/Marshall, Pétain who was named head of state  France is out of the war  The government of Pétain was in Vichy o The Vichy Regime was taking charge of France o All the French territories/Empire, came under Vichy  Germany now occupied 2/3 of France, and left the area of Vichy (section in SE of France) under Pétain  Hitler marched to the Champ de Lisée (Main avenue of Paris)  The only country left was Britain BRITAIN  Hitler was all over Europe, from the boarder of Denmark to Spain  German's sat on the boarder of Spain  Strong German presence Battle of Britain  By the end of June 1940, Britain stood alone with no allies o Canada supported them  Hitler was now the master of the European continent (except Spain, Portugal, Sweden)  With Italy as its ally, he also had an entrance into Africa (Libya was Italian)  Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria were under Vichy, who had signed an Armistice  The Britain’s were worried about an attack on Egypt o The Suez Canal was important to Britain  More importantly, the most immediate threats to Britain was their supply roots o Become isolated  There was a fear of German submarines that would cut supply roots, because Britain depended on its Empire  Hitler could easily starve Britain o Became an issue of food and ration o The agriculture in Britain was isolated  Hitler crushed Poland, a state of 30 million people, in 4 weeks. Then, Norway, Denmark, Belgium, Holland and France (population with 60 million) were also crushed. It took him 8 weeks to do all that. o Could Britain Survive??  On May 10, 1940, when Holland and Belgium were attacked, British PM Neville Chamberlain resigned o They turned to Winston Churchill  He established a coalition government  To a great extent, one has to look at the forceful and inspiring leadership of Churchill. Alone, he was able to inspire the British people in a very forceful way. He indicated that Britain was ready to fight to the last for their National existence.  Britain had 3 assets that made it possible for them to resist 1. It was an Island o A geopolitical and geographic asset o You couldn’t march into Britain o You could not cross the British channel 2. German submarine fleet was limited to a few hundred boats, and could not afford an undersea warfare. o Not equipped for underwater warfare o British fleet was there protecting the island 3. The German's had superior air power and they hoped that through the air power, they would beat Britain. The morale of the British people was so high that it could not be broken o For 6 weeks after the fighting ceased in France, German airpower commenced a mass daylight bombing raid over England to break Britain down o This is where the Britain was successful, their morale was not broken o Kind George 6 played an important role o Every time there was a bombing, he would go and stand in uniform with his people If you break the morale of the people, they become a military target. 6 weeks of daily bombing (a tremendous thing that was done) In August 1940, German airfare wanted to dislocate British industry and shatter the mo
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