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Lecture 6

Week 6 Thurs Oct 11.docx

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Henry Habib

The Peace Settlement of 1919  First time after the war, a new environment brought about the new passage of victims and vanquish through a transition from what many thought was hope to bitterness  End of the war everyone was happy, there was hope  20 million people killed  Many complex reasons why those who met at Versailles in 1919 could not justify the hopes reposed in them  USA President Wilson announced that the USA had no selfish ends to serve, came in and broke the balance of the war, no particular selfish ends to serve, no conquests  No domination, they don’t want to conquer or dominate anyone, no particular selfish ends to serve  Asking for no payment, we just want a peace, everyone live in peace, no material compensation for our sacrifices  Idealism at its height, peace of the world is more important  Above all we champion the rights of mankind  Despite this, he remained silent on British and French takeovers over territories over the Ottoman Empire  British, French and Italians spoke in terms of: o ending the race for armaments o Spirit of militarism should cease o Spoke of self-determination of those who are repressed  All the ideals, nobody opposes these ideas  Leaders at Versailles o USA President Woodrow Wilson o British Prime Minister (1915), David Lloyd-George o French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau, nationalist o These men were the principal players at Versailles  1918, Wilson issued 14 points, this should be the base from where we should work o Open Covenants, a treaty, openly arrive at  all treaties now have to be public  no secret treaty’s anymore  like the Sykes-Picot treaty o Absolute Freedom of the Sea  Open to all states  No one can obstruct the Sea  In peace and war o Removal (as fas as possible) of all economic barriers  Free trade throughout the world o The reduction of national armaments o Impartial adjustment of all colonial claims  Africa and Asia where the Germans are,  be impartial when splitting it up o Secure Russia’s own political development  Following the Russian Bolshevik Revolution o Restore the Independence of Belgium  Germans o Free all French territories, and return Alsace-Lorraine  Where the Germans occupy, and have captured o Readjust the frontiers of Italy along the lines of nationality  Trieste, an Austrian city, should be restored to Italy o The peoples of Austria-Hungary should be accorded the opportunity of autonomous development  Slavik peoples given the chance to be autonomous, independent o Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro were to be restored as independent states  Occupied by the Germans o Portion of the Ottoman Empire (mainly the Turkish) to be assured a secure sovereignty while other nationalities under Turkish rule were to be given autonomous development  What Turkey is today o The Polish state should be recreated  Divided in the 19 century between Germany, Austria, and Russia  Reunited and given access to the sea o A general association of nations is to be created  Will become the League of Nations  Succeeded by the United Nations, which we have today  These were lofty unselfish claims  Where should the frontiers be in Poland and Italy  how will they do all this? Very complicated  detach the empires and create new states  are we going to have a “just peace”?  will Versailles be a “just peace”?  Wilhelm escaped to Holland, Holland would not extradite him, should we accuse him of crimes against humanity? Him alone?  What about secret treaty’s?  President Wilson sailed from New York, arrived in France, at the peace conference with his 14 points, this should be our road map  “this is the war to end war” Wilson said  “this is a peace to end peace” a remark The Treaty of Versailles  January 19, 1919 first session, began working on the draft  June 28, 1919 final session,
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