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The Postwar Middle East 1945-1979

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University of Ottawa
Thomas Boogaart

I. Decolonization in the Middle East a. The Modern Middle East: One of the areas of the world that is the most difficult for the West to understand b. Regional profile i. The term middle east is concept of colonialism: Western powers were trying to get to India, to the spices ii. This area was one they had to get across iii. Diversity 1. Non arab states: Turkey, Israel, Iran 2. People associate the middle east with Islam, but there is a lot religious diversity 3. Just as Europe experienced reformation, so did the Middle East 4. Within Islam: different aspects of conservatism and liberal islam 5. Two poles a. Mediterranean: used to be a part of the Roman Empire; connected historically to the West b. Arabian peninsula: most of these people were living in indigenous nations. Have only recently made a lot of contact with civilization. 6. Largest islamic states not in the middle east: Indonesia, Pakistan, Philippines 7. We associate the middle east with Petroleum (not concentrated equally; mainly in the Gulf Stream. Bahrain, the Emirates etc have a very low population c. The Middle East: was conquered by Mohamad's followers in the 7-10th century i. Developed Islamic civilization: similar culture ii. Commonality 1. Climate is very arid among many nations in the middle east a. Quality of the soil is least favorable for agriculture and food crops 2. Sense of family a. Feeling of all members of the arab world being a part of one family b. There are tribal groupings among this "family" 3. Postwar development a. Characterized by the fastest modernization 4. High birth rate a. Standard of living has been affected even with the presence of oil d. Middle East and colonialism i. After WWI, Arab states became colonies of the Western World relative to intrigues ii. The treaty of Sevres, 1920 1. Levant given to French to relive the good old days iii. During WWII concessions had to be made e. Post war colonialism 1945-1962 i. West had guilt about the Holocaust, which led to the building of a Jewish state II. Nasser's Arab Socialism: Nasser would emerge as the preeminent leader and primary spokesperson of the Arab world. Had a plan that would enable to Middle East to relieve itself of Western Colonialism a. Nasser's career i. 1952: uprising due to discontent of European rule ii. 1954: Emerges as head of state. Begins to create policy 1. Feelings about the Westernvworld: a. great admirer of the west. Believed they were able to modernize successfully, something the middle east probably wasn't able to do b. There was an assissination attempt when he tried to modernize the country like the West had done b. The Suez Crisis: Nasser's golden moment i. 1955: Nasser ha
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