Restoration and Revolutionary Europe, 1815-1848
Napoleon had been defeated
Between 1815-20s/30s called the restoration; thought as an attempt to turn back the clock
Not correct; period seeks to find solutions to problems; new modern solutions are being sought
Many of the movements started with the FV; continued through the period
The Congress of Vienna
Follows over a number of months; the meeting of 4 ministers that try to restore a balance of
power across Europe
Powers: the Hapsburg Empire (Austria) represented by Metternich
Prussia: Prince Hardenberg
Russia: Tsar Alexander I
France: Foreign minister Tallyrand
Borders are restored; Napoleonic borders abolished
Independent Switzerland and an Independent Holland are included; Belgium included
Satellites of the French empire are made independent
Bourbon monarchies restored in France and Spain
In terms of restorations: the network German states were NOT restored; instead, there is the
creation of a German confederation, which is composed of 39 states (1815-1866)
These states are NOT a national unification
The confederation governed by Prussian andAustrian confederations; this creates a conflict later
The creation of the congress system/ the concert of Europe; a system devised to prevent great
conflict to not happen again
Peace was to be strived for; stayed this way until ww1
The persistence of revolution:
Period of ongoing instability; NOT peaceful Reformations in Spain
Early nationalist movements in German, Italian and Belgian lands
Revolution in France in 1830
Anumber of instabilities:
- Greek independence (1821-9); is versus the Ottoman Empire. OE by 19 century is
noticeably weakening… 1827; O on the verge of victory of beating Greece. (Greece was
seen as the cradle of Europe) Russian, British and French conflicts intervened to help
defeat the Ottoman forces. By 1829, forces are defeated; treaty is signed (Treaty of
Adrianople) and Greek independence is declared in 1832
- Belgium: was one with the Netherlands (Dutch is the official language) Catholic Church
had no status. Summer 1830: students rose and began a revolution in Brussels. By
November 1830: emerging middle-class; realise a radical republic is not the course.
Belgian congress is formed; declares Belgium an independent constitutional monarchy.
(Netherlands accepts this)
- France:After 1814; constitutional monarchy in place; guarantees toleration and equality.
Problem: King Charles X starts to become more powerful and gets more and more
support from the Ultra royalists. (French nobles that had left and have now returned).
Begin to supress liberal forces; new laws passed to who could and could not vote. By
July of 1830; France revolts and Charles X abdicates. Poor want the creation of a
republic. Middle-class guides the revolution in a more liberal direction and creates a new
constitutional monarchy where some people can vote. France: population of 30 million.
(166 000 men could vote.) Louis-Philippe; now king, but king of the French people not of
France. Lower class workers are not very happy about this; continue to rise up about this.
(LP is the last French king)
Sites of the Revolution, 1848
Economic downturn: hunger and unemployment throughout Europe.
In many ways, 1848 is an ideological revolution:
1) Romantic nationalism. Empires wrecked by problems: German and Italian lands
2) Liberalism. Rising middle class that want a say in politics. 3) Socialism and Marxism.
Marx: all of human history was based on economic structure ONLY.
Both appealed to f