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The 17th and 18th Century.docx

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Hernan Tesler- Mabe

The 17 and 18 CenturyAbsolutism, the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment Absolutism: a new phase/manner in which monarchs rule Aruler: a sovereign; possess supreme rights to make laws, to tax, to administer justice, to control the state’s administrative system, and to determine foreign policy Standard understanding: divine right bound at the beginning of the 17 century Monarch ruled not only temporally, but by the right of god God ruled through appointed Kings and Queens; absolute and divine right This granting of authority by god is no longer filtered through the papacy By the beginning of the 1600s; transition from “spiritual” power to actual power Opens door to the undermining of religious authority; all state power in the hands of the monarch The Court of Louis XIV Born 1638- Died 1715 Reigned from1643-1715 Father: Louis XIII Religious rights of the Huguenots; maintained throughout this period to keep them as loyal subjects, however, the rights were overtime; removed Louis XIII worked on centralizing power Established a network of spies throughout his kingdom to monitor what people thought of the King Sent out royal civil servants called “intendants”; to ensure that nobles followed the crown’s directives/orders Louis XIII dies 1643; Louis XIV is 5 years old when he becomes (Crowned in 1654) Person in charge: Cardinal Masarah (dies in 1661); only then does Louis XIV take control Louis XIV does not want to send out intendants anymore; brings all the nobles to him The Palace of Versailles; wants it to become the “central policy” building The royal court in palace. Purposes: The personal household of the king Location of central government machinery Place where subjects came to find… Nobles and powerful subjects trying to find favour with the King The creation of the PV; concentrates his power completely 1685 October: effects the edict of Fontainebleau Destroy the Huguenot churches and makes their religion illegal Huguenot population flees; moves to England, France (as many as 200 000 people) Making the PV; requires large sums of money Between 1667 and 1713; France is involved in a series of wars Final one: war of the Spanish succession Runs between 1702-1713 Coalition of the united provinces, England, Hapsburg-Austria and many German states opposing France and Spain Not only in Europe, but in NorthAmerica Very strong alliance built on the dynasty (France and Spain; unification) Tremendously strong force if this happens France and Spain are defeated by other countries Treaty signed; confirms Philip V as the Spanish ruler (head of Bourbon dynasty) Affirms that the Spanish and French thrones were separate and could not joijn The Spanish Netherlands, Milan and Naples were given toAustria The emerging state of Brandenburg, Prussia gained additional territories England wins; get Gibraltar, French possessions inAmerica (including Newfoundland, Hudson Bay territory and Nova Scotia) France: despite all still remains a great power Spain: starts to withdraw England; strong naval force The Scientific Revolution Begins mid-16 century (Copernicus: Heliocentric universe; 1543) Rebrandt (1632) “THEANATOMY LESSONS OF DR. NICOLAES TULP” th Early 16 century; focus on anatomy
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