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History 2100B Notes.docx

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Maxime Dagenais

History 2100B Notes Study of the Past Historians try to be objective as we can Our closeness makes it more biased however, that’s why we wait awhile before studying a topic 50 years considered the limit for studying history due to the fact that- sources generally unlocked become more available, as well some veterans would still be alive, lacking objectivity due to fear of insulting veterans Historians tend to be optimistic Almost impossible to know for sure what happened in the past Can anyone be a historian? Studying the past it doesn’t make yourself a historian… Rules: 1. All statements that one makes has to be verifiable by evidence that the reader can check for themselves 2. Majority of sources must come from primary sources, use secondary source material to improve your argument (If you get the primary source from a history book, you can quote the primary source, but also the history book as well) What can historians do? Three Subjects that I like 1. Contemporary Military History 2. Post-Imperial Asian History 3. Post 19 century global military History 12/01/11 History of the Study of History th Greek History- Renaissance- 19 Century -birth of modern history starts with the Greeks, 6 century b.c.e first time Greeks started writing down their history - questioning everything around you -humanism, rationalism, scientific methods -classical Greeks call history historian (to see or to inquire) -historians back then considered bards/poets, not like the historians today A. Homer - considered by some to be the very first historian, supposedly a travelling poet, made a living telling stories in audience, Iliad, and Odyssey B. Herodotus- criticized homer for not using evidence in history, sources… C. Thucydides – used observable evidence, criticized homer for lacking critical mind… like Herodotus… Unlike Herodotus, Thucydides not only critically thought about history, but also though if his sources were telling the truth… “political forces were the driving force of history”, politics alone and not culture affected history Renaissance Histories + Evolution of “Modern” history - Renaissance historians improved on past work, and furthered work - Reason for long gap due to intervention of church as a result for the dark ages - All scholars more critical of role around them was allowed to flourish A. Renaissance Historians – pretty much copied what the Greek historians have done, but brought modern sources and practices, and revived the past advancements, obviously would use history to say why their state/country/city is so great, Machiavelli – prominent example B. Scientific Revolution – Significant figure for history Francis Bacon, his most important contribution to European knowledge and rise of modern history, advocacy of experimental philosophy and empiricism. – All knowledge must be based on experiments and observation, inductive methods, Jean Bodin, scientific method of understanding history, three kinds, human actual and Devine, Bodin’s book asks historians to avoid precedence and be detached from their study, shouldn’t judge the past from modern principles and modern entities, look from it as a separate entity. C. The Enlightenment: 18 century, philosophers began to question everything, from history, science government etc. created their own historical theories about history, ideal of progress… arguing that civilization has advanced, Voltaire considered history of roman catholic church in his work… 19 Century Histiography - Added new theories and interpretations to the study - Period when the discipline really grew and in general what it became today - This time history emerged as independent discipline - Historians in 19 century was obsessed to prove to the world that history was an important discipline such as physics, and anthropology - Karl Marx’s Marxism: philosophy created by Marx…. Extremely critical of European society and capitalism influenced his opinion on society and etcs… In general his philosophies hoped to understand the past, and in order to replace the system with equality and freedoms. – Historical Materialism: Marx argued only concrete observable evidence can be used with history, only hard facts should be found in history books. Impact of capitalism on study of history was the fact that everything was needed to be proven… Marx believed that socio-economic structures direct society progression, Marx categorized history into three eras... - Leopold von Ranke – historicism - Style of writing was important, write from an objective position A. Marxism B. Empiricism – Von Ranke C. Romanticism/ Nationalism: believed that all history should include emotion, creativity, shouldn’t just be facts or notes, but rather should be a “good story to read”, that history books should be besides the best fiction novels, history should be used to foster nationalism for the patron state, history should play critical role in uniting everyone under same banner 17/01/2011 20 century… 1. Annales school - Officially born in 1928, by Marc Bloch and Lucien Febvre - When school of thought created when magazine was published - A complete rejection of everything that was done before, openness to new historical methods and research - Leaders of the “French historical revolution” - Rejection of von Ranke’s work in the 19 centuryth - What they didn’t like about Ranke was that he only practiced diplomatic and political history - Anything that was else was considered “amateur” - School rejected old fashioned type of history - School showed that history does not have to be limited with just politics or etc. as Ranke says… - Karl Lemprecht: studied at university of Leipzig under Lucien Febure, studied everything other than political history… - Bloch and Febvre was not only influenced by history but also other disciplines - Works: Feudal Society by Bloch, year 900-1300 history… - Considered a first macro history, - Macro history is considered the first history that covers everything…. - Bloch dealt with entirety of feudal society, and other aspects - Many historians previous of Bloch and Febvre claimed that life in middle ages were directly influenced by Christianity - Bloch says that instead Christianity was considered less important than originally thought. - European kings made rare appearance in his book - Febvres book: psychological book, the problem of belief in the 16 century…. th - Psychology - Tried to prove that non-believing in god wathimpossible at the time - By examining the language in the 16 century, key terms such as absolute etc. did not exist - “without them, how could anyone think with philosophical integrity and validity” - Emmanuelle Leroy-Ladurie: Montaillou: micro history of a village in southern France - Important because it exhibits anthropology in historical school of thought - Was based on anthropological work - Ladurie studied every aspect of the life in village… 2. Marxist/ History from Below - Most innovative research of the 20 centuryh - Brought social cultural linguistics, anthropology etc. - No longer were queens, kings and nobility the elements of change, or the most important actors in history - But rather the people became equal actors in historical change… - Marxist historians believe that class struggle is the root of all history - Primary motor of historical development was social conflict due to social inequalities - Root of all social conflict: economics - In all major events, the lower elements of society tries to uproot upper parts of society according to Marxist historians - However this has made many historians doubt the honesty of Marxist historians - To many, the work of these Marxist historians are simply unfit for history - Father of Marxist history: Albert Soboul – is an admitted card carrying Marxist - Coined the term bourgeoisie revolution - In Marxist terminology, the French revolution was caused by the conflict between the nobility and the bourgeoisie - George Rudé: focused on French revolution - After PhD from university of London, told that his doctoral supervisor that he says he would never work in England. - Soboul ignored the crowd’s role in history, while Rudé focused on the crowd, took away the importance of the bourgeoisie. - Rudé mentions how every time the revolution was about to collapse, the masses were always there to push the revolution to help it succeed. - Introduced new sources to the study of history. - Rudé was able to use for first time police records on French revolution, creating new dimension of revolution - David Abraham: wrote a book called the collapse of the Weimar republic - Made extremely controversial argument that capitalism lead to the rise of Hitler, thus WWII, thus holocaust. - Made up quotes, made up sentences etc… hugely unacceptable - Many historians who studied Weimar republic tried to verify his footnotes but however nothing was found. - Problem was every controversial argument was lacking in sources… 3. New Social History - Social history that started to appear in the 1960, 70s 80s - More of addition to what the Annales School has done…. - Not really a group of people but rather a trend in history - Long-time history was practiced by old white elite men - All of this changed with women, and arrival of minorities - Most of these historians were left wing historians who advocated rights for their social classes - And tried to use history to try and influence others for rights of their respective minorities - Created courses on race and gender, race histories, women’s histories etc. - Also expanded such histories… - Eugene Genovese: wrote book that looked at slavery from the point of view of the slaves themselves - Simone de Beauvoir, Betty Friedan - Studied the important role of women in society… - Movement still occurring right now 19/01/2011 1. Cliometrics - History based on economic theory - Used a lot of quantitative data, looking history through the eyes of the economists - School though born, economics fail to considered the presentence of the period, - By marrying the two: economics and history, finally really study economic history - Most important work of Cliometric school is called “Time on the Cross” by Robert Fogel, Stanley Engerman: regarding slavery in the united states - Many apologists claim that the civil war was fought for economic factors; one factor was that the north was jealous of the south. - Book argued that slave was better fed, and generally better treaty than originally though according to the book 2. Revisionism - School of thought revises common ideas, and common assumptions - Arguably the most important school of thought right now - Historians of this school of thought thinks that the past conclusion need to be revised and out dated - Revisionism is important due to the fact that new materials are found and unlocked. - The influences of new schools of thought - When Marxism arrived, we reconsidered our previous conclusion on various topics - Creation of new nations, nationalism influences revisionism - i.e. when new nation created, each nation tries to relook at its history and tries to revise its own history - New technologies: carbon dating etc. - François Furet - Revisionism created school of thought denialism and negatism - Many individuals claim the aforementioned school of thought is not history - Due to the fact that many individuals have political motives and thus are not historians 24/01/2011 Public History - Someone who is a public historian would work in the museum or archives… - Lyle Dick: “Public History in Canada an Introduction” – A historical service carried out for and by the public - Collective past… Public History in Canada - A north American term; historians working outside of the university context - Public historian: active in public settings in museums archives, national institutions etc. - Started in the 1960s – 70s, by Trudeau to combat the decentralized image of Canada emitted from Quebec - Broad range of activities, media etc. - Everything from the cross on the side of the road to the war memorial all can be considered as public history - Public historians want public to interact with history… - How do you get the public into the museum? Remembrance Day ceremony? - “Edutainment” - Politics play a role in public history, balance the needs of the people giving money to give exhibit, but yourself as a historian you have to be accurate, as well as promoting return trips to the museum - How do we tell history really was, instead of what we want it to be…? - Highly politicized climate right now… - Museums now must address the needs of numerous constituencies beyond the academics - Interfacing: “keyboard is the interface” , asking you to interact with it, not purely an observer - Memory theory: vast, convoluted, what is dominant memory/public memory, perception etc. - How a fixed story vs. an ambiguous story deals with public - Role of the public in creation of Remembrance Day - Public shapes the way the that history is being presented, regardless of the “historical reality” 26/01/2011 School of thought that influenced study of history: Post-Modernism - A reaction to modern methods and historical approaches - Does not only effect history, but eve
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