412 BCE- Spartans become more confident and they ordered the construction of new triremes to
chalone Athenians on sea. The most significant development was Darius II this as an opportunity, he
send the Western most area of Persian governor, Tissaphernes to negotiate with Sparta under the
advice of Alcabides.
In the summer of 412 Chios – a Spartan force, led by Alcibiades persuaded the island of Chios to revolt.
Chios is Athens’s most powerful ally and they are the only member in the empire at this point who are
still producing ships. Alcibiades wants Chios to revolt and this may cause a domino revolt against their
allies. Athens just came out of the Sicilian expedition and they are already hurting. They dip into
emergency funds to put together a respectable navy and their fear was justified and the Spartans
convinced more allies to revolt but it begins with Chios.
In 412 BCE – Spartans and Tissaphernes and signed their first treaty.
– the Spartans agree – the Spartans would take undisputed control of Asia Minor. They allowed
for Persia to have dominion over all the areas that the Persians conquered including Thessaly
and BOETIA. This was a major concession on Sparta’s part (Remember their whole goal was to
Other terms, they agreed
1. the bulk of the military effort would be to prevent those still loyal to Athens from providing
Athens tribute. So Athens would be cut off.
2. They also agreed that the war effort would be conducted jointly (Persian and Spartan
cooperation). Spartan cannot command on their own but Persians must cooperate.
3. Peace cannot be declared unless Sparta & Persia agree. Sparta could not solicit peace with Athens
4. Persia would pay for Sparta’s troops to fight in Asia minor
5. There was a general agreement that Persia and Sparta would not make war on each other or their
allies. (Formal alliance) TheEndofthePeloponnesianWar
Xenophon 101 (ca. 428 – 354 BCE) life
- Continuation of Thucydides (his narrative ends at 411 BCE)
- His work is the most important as it chronologically explains events that happen
- His work/history is biased but it is useful
- Aristocratic Athenian family
- Only fought late in the Peloponnesian war . Toward the end Peloponnesian war , he served as an
Athenian solder. After the Peloponnesian war, Xenophon was a mercenary in Asia. He fought in
the Persian civil war. He is overseas when Socrates (Studied under Socrates) is tried and
convicted & executed..Upon Socrates execution & all of his followers are executed. When he
does return t mainland Greece he goes to the Peloponnese/ In 371 BCE – he is allowed to return
to Athens and he starts to write Hellenika ; what he has witnessed; he is an excellent source
because of the first-person perspective. Advantage to proximity to events and proximity to
others that experiences the events.
Late 412 & Early 411 BCE – Alcibiades was trying to turn the situation to his own advantage because
ultimately, he wants to be pardoned and he wants to be restored to his position back in Athens.
Alcibiades decides to stick around Tissaphernes. He advised Tissaphernes to continue helping the
Spartans but said to not betoo helpful.
Alcibiades tries to convince Tissaphernes: He argued that if the Spartans were to win a decisive victory
over the Athenians, then they would discard the treaty made with the Persians in order to liberate the
fellow Greeks and they were strong enough to do it. Rather such a treaty to require sacfricing Greek
territory would be more appealing the Athenians.
Advice: Athenians would be able to cede Asia Minor to the Persians. It would be better for the Persians
to hold back their support for Sparta and to let Athens and Sparta weaken echoer so that Sparta
couldn’t set up a position & at the same time have Athens reach rock bottom, together attack the
New Relationships: Alcibiades wanted to broker a deal between the Persians (Tissaphernes) and
Athenians, Alcibiades needed to prove his commitment and that way he could return to power. By
provin his devotion to Athens he would be able to return. But he was aware of a major impediment of
this plan, “popular support”, and this plan would not be well received.
In 411 BCE –Initiation of Alciabiades plan: he approached the Athenians fleet stationed at Samos, ad he
introduced himself as the Spokesmen for Tissaphernes, informed the generals at Samos that the
Persians were interested in brokering a deal with Athens and breaking a deal with Sparta.
- Con: A Major condition would be a change of government in Athens (abandon democracy and
adopt oligarchy). Two of the Generals in charge of the fleet at Samos, made plans to overthrow Atheni