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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 (June 19).docx

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University of Ottawa
Dinah Jansen

June 19 Lecture 2 - Subjective view of backwardness, those in power didn’t want change, others aspired to be like the developed countries like Britain - New political parties after 1905 revolution, chipped away at the Tsar regime, people had more opportunity to criticize - WW1 is immediate catalyst for the revolution, brought attention to problems in Russia, even more so than Russo-Japanese war WW1 - Franz Ferdinand assassinated by member of Black Hand,Austria gives ultimatum to Serbia, they don’t agree, Austria declares war - Serbia’s independence important to Russia, they would lose power in Baltics o They would also look like pussies in front of their allies, they want to prove themselves after Russo-Japanese poopsicles - France pledged to support Russia if they attacked Germany, British only get into war if Germans violate Belgium’s neutrality - Russia started mobilizing troops the day afterAustria declared war, Germany declared war after that, France declared war after Germany invaded Belgium Russia’s War with the Germans - Propaganda: To protect fellow Slavs, much enthusiasm, made the horrendousity of the war even worse - Russian Patriotism - Dissent in the Cities and the countryside, outbreak of war temporarily shifted attention away from Tsars problems - Socio-Economic problems worsen as war got worse, intensified opposition to the Tsar - Secret treaties with theAllies to keep Russia in the war o Russia entered the war to protect Slavic people (BS reason), but it had imperialistic aims - Russia held Galicia, but got fucked in Prussia (170,000 deaths to 12,000 deaths) - Summer 1915, Germany pushed out Russians - Russians could not reach Serbia, it was overrun - By 1916 Russians casualties 7 million men (half the force they mobilized in July 1914) Impact of WW1 on Tsarist Russia - Enthusiasm died quickly, harsh and unbearable strain on resources of Russia - Huge burden to industry because all the men went to war - Agriculture: transportation crap (food not getting places efficiently) - Women and POW’s started to work to meet industrial needs - 1915 Russian exports dropped below 1913 levels, and imports rised dramatically (military stuff, and machinery) - The purchase of these imports made Russia madly in debt - Russia needed to change its trade routes,Axis blockade - Shift to war production, not enough consumer goods (essential stuff, food etc) o Therefore inflation, incomes came down drastically, money became worthless - Crime flourished, bread riots (similar to French Revolution) - Bread riots became a means to defend the community, they believed they deserved access to subsistence goods - Women in Moscow, potatoes too expensive. o “Give us the potatoes cheap or well steal em, yarr!” - Government unable to take care of war widows & children - Lots of riots, letters to government, government did shit all (system was breaking down under the strain of war) - Dislocation of people cause of war - Scorched earth policy - Millions of refugees - Industrial strikes - Military incompetence, civil incompetence o Lack of supplied for military, both food and guns Rasputin’s Imperial Puppets? - Tsar assumed command of the Military; therefore he assumed personal responsibility for the Russia’s conduct on the war. Fucked him over big time. o Irritated officers under him, since he was at the front he could not govern the empire, he gave his power to his Wife - She was surrounded by people and Rasputin - Russian public opinion, everyone but the right want to fight the war, after have the liberalization of Russia - The right didn’t want to fight with the liberal democracies - People thought the Empress was a spy, treason. Lots of rumours about Rasputin and Empress. o Empress and Rasputin having sex, etc - Opposition parties in the Duma (August 1915): progressive bloc (coalition of moderate parties: liberals) o Kadet leader Milyukov head o Began anti-government campaign after Tsar rejected their proposals - Lots of opinions of the war - War an opportunity to seize power - Berlin and Vienna hoped to negotiate a separate peace with Russia or defeat them o They turned to political warfare, allowed Bolsheviks to propagandize - Rasputin assassinated o Tsar returned to attend his funeral February Revolution - Industrial strikes, dramatic increase in the price of necessities, bread shortages in the capital - Lockout from the Putilov factory, 40 grand people jobless - Sympa
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