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Cold War.pdf

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Corinne Gaudin

The Unravelling of theWartimeAlliance • The war had been a time of cooperation for all nations • At the end of the war,neither the US or the soviet union wanted the cold war,both were hoping for continuation of peace • Neither was interested in attacking the other,neither had a blueprint for world domination • Yet within two years any good will had flown out the window • The soviet union clearly wanted these full relations,sent out its foreign policies in a memo saying they needed at minimum ten years of peace,and collaboration with other nations in order to get back on track • In this memo also,it was estimated that it would be 50 years before Russia would be ready for a communist revolution • The US also very clearly emphasised that ecenomic growth and stability of all European nations was necessary for peace and forwarding of the world • So why did everything unravel? • In spite of the period of cooperation during the war itself,the US and USSR entered postwar with a baggage of mistrust,delay of the allies to open second front,lend lease ungratefulness • Also divergent lessons drawn from the war,that would directly inform conceptions of security • Both nations came out of the war feeling vulnerable • US learned that isolationism doesn't work,and neither does appeasement • Russia learned that democracies are fragile things,and any assurance form a democratic govt is not a good guarantee of safety • And the US came out of the war with undisputed military superiority • It also had enormous economic superiority • They held 75% of the gold reserves after the war • Stalin decided that capitalist,bourgeois nations had to be held at arms length,other than the small ones • So to ensure this,it was decided that the states bordering the soviet union had to be friendly nations • So eastern Europe had to be a safe zone,a buffer zone between Russia and the western nations • So after the war the allies had acquiesced to the annexation of these territories by Stalin • From the western perspective that was the sticking issue,the idea of eastern Europe • They thought it was impossible that he was acting in security concerns,the west thought it was the beginning of a communist expansion westward,couldn't see what stalin had to fear • The west didn't understand why the soviet union would distrust the international things set up,like the UN • And the world bank,which was run in a way that the share of votes was proportional to the funds that had been out into the world bank,US had 80% • The big wartime international conferences had settled many issues of postwar Europe,like starting UN, Poland's borders,what to do with Japan,and the sticky point was that the USSR would get half of the reparations paid after the war,but the amount was never decided... • Stalin was getting angrier and angrier that there was no second front,so Churchill went to Moscow to make sure Stalin stayed in the war,and they talked about postwar Europe,Churchill wrote down percentages of nations and how they would be split up by influence of USSR and Britain • And it looks like after the war Stalin followed this plan,even though it was unofficial • Stalin withdrew all communist support in the Greece c
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