Reconstruction – Period following civil war 1865-1877
- 1876 American centennial
- 1776: 4 million Americans, 1876: 47 million Americans, from Alaska to the Atlantic
- 1865: Finished worst war in its history, 600k dead Americans out of 30 million; former
confederacy in ruins, slavery was dead. A. Lincoln’s emancipation declaration, southern military
defeat leads to death to slavery.
- Reconstruction was attempt both at re-incorporate the southern states, and bring in normal life:
political, social, economic those former slaves
- Most controversial eras in American history
- Some republicans in the north sought to punish the south, many in south sought to punish the
- 1863: Northern victory became inevitable; 3 arguments regarding reconstruction. 1 how do you
bring back the confederacy into the union? 2. Who decides what the treatment should be?
President? Or Congress? 3. What role should the slaves have?
- Dec 1864, A Lincoln announced the 10% plan. As northern army conquers southern states,
residents given choice, if 10% of residence renounces slavery, accept union that state beings to
regain its rights.
- A tactical move to lower southern resolve, however congress did not support it
- Many southerners did not sign the petition. Northern radical republicans thought this was far
- Congress passed the Wade- Davis bill which Lincoln vetoed: southern states would only get back
their rights when the majority of the residents signed the petition
- Apr 1865: Robert E. Lee surrendered, war ended.
- A. Lincoln thus then assassinated.
- Andrew Johnson became president, a southerner who backed the union
- Johnson then embarks on “presidential reconstruction” , pardoned all southerners except the
military and political leaders, as well as wealthy planters
- President appointed state governors; states must repudiate secession, slavery and pay off the
confederate debt, before becoming full states again in the union.
- Johnson was hoping to own the political and social aspect of the southern states, he hoped that
poorer whites in the south, who were not as crazy about slavery would take control
- Elections in south resulted in election of rich planters, who were ultimately pardoned.
- Radical republicans were enraged, these new southern governments enforced black codes: a
sense of administrative procedures that made black Americans to get jobs except under rules
which were almost slavery again.
- Dec 1865 advocates in the north demanded the southern governments be eliminated to actually
obtain suffrage for all men.
- Moderate republicans blocked this, southern elected officials would come to congress, but
congress won’t swear them in
- Freedmen’s bureau was voted in by the radical republicans to help blacks get jobs
- First time the US actually passed something resembling a civil rights act.
- Prior civil rights were considered to be a state jurisdiction, not a federal gov’t
- Johnson vetoed all of these bills, due to personal stubbornness, strong belief in state rights - Result: congress and president conflict; congress can override a presidential veto under
constitution; congress achieved this, first bill in American history to be passed over presidential
veto. 14 amendment soon passed after.
- Midterm elections in 1866, northern voters voted strongly against Johnson’s policies, while
southern voters tried to strongly vote against the 14 amendment
- Federal reconstruction of southern states: civilian government eliminated, replaced with a
military government until southern states changed their way.
- Eventually, nearly all southern states were run by republicans, widely resented by southerners
- Scalawags: they tried to get inside the system to try and dismantle it from the inside.
- Scalawags agreed that black men should vote etc. but state government should be white.
- Every southern state, majority of men who voted for republicans were black, rise in articulate
black leadership, some had been free men before civil war, others former slaves.
Overwhelmingly composed of professionals
- They tried to not only preserve rights, but advance black rights. Many elected and appointed to
office. Many elected to congress and legislatures
- Reconstruction created first public school systems in the southern states, gave plantation
workers more bargaining power, white southern gov’ts outlawed racial discrimination in public
transport and accommodation
- Attempts to rebuild southern economy, lavish subsidies for industries willing to relocate to
southern states, and rebuild southern towns
- All that money led to corruption, raising taxes were also needed
- Essential reason for opposition to reconstruction, most white settlers cannot accept the notion
that blacks were their equals in any capacity: violence ensued, most famously by Ku Klux Klan.
- Some areas, the Klan took over the republican party
- Andrew Johnson had his own problems though, fight with his secretary of war. However the
secretary was popular, and thus when Johnson tried to fire him, Johnson was impeached.
Johnson was tried in the senate, he survives by one vote. But political capital gone
- 1868 Ulysses S. Grant voted as president, 15 amendment to the constitution, bans any state
from restricting the electoral franchise because of race. Congress passes enforcement acts to
clamp down on Klan violence
- Grant ordered the American army into the south to destroy the Klan, 1872 Klan decimated
- Grant easily wins re-election that year
- Many southern democrats never accepted reconstruction, with destruction of the Klan,
northerners wanted to put this behind them
- Many issues that era: mass immigration, mass industrialization etc.
- Many started to believe that problems in south resulted from the exclusion of the former ruling
class in the south.
- Racism was endemic in U.S., even in the north
- Reconstruction becomes a symbol of misgovernment, of corruption, and a misguided attempt to
uplift a lower part of society
- 1873 major economic depression, 1874 federal midterm elections: southern democrats take
majority of congress
- 1874 Klan starts to revive, this time Grant does nothing. Had his own personal problems
- A second civil rights act in 1875, but it was toothless
- 1876 only 2-3 states, South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana were controlled by republicans. 1876
election Hayes vs. Tilden. - Electoral College: system under American constitution, each individual state’s Electoral College
votes is determined by individual states majority vote. You can have a majority federal vote, and
- Backdoor dealing begins, Hayes wins by dealing with southern democrats, and Hayes was a
- Soon after presidency, reconstruction ends, troops withdrawn from southern states.
- Revival of full scale rights for rights in the south returns in the 1960s, almost 100 years later.
- Republican Party is annihilated for almost 100 years in the southern states.
- Southern states become a white, democratic bloc, to stop blacks from getting ahead.
- Federal gov’t did nothing. – no southern state had a black majority, although there are
significant black numbers, many former slaves couldn’t read, when reading was a condition to
- July 1881, James Garfield president, on his way to Boston. Charles Guiteau stepped up and shot
Garfield, the president severely wounded. Garfield lingered for months, bullet lodged in hard to
reach place, 2 months later he died
- This murder shooked the U.S, two presidents assassinated so recently.
- Guiteau claimed insanity, didn’t work, executed. Guiteau was a republican, Garfield was also a
republican; Guiteau claimed Garfield betrayed him
- Half breeds vs. Stalwarts, Guiteau blamed Garfield when a diplomatic position was not given to
- Everyone was blaming everyone for their problems
- Civil war pensions very lucrative, passed to spouse
- Voting patterns determined often by tradition, or ethnicity
- Patronage system in elections
- Early politics dominated by big political stalwarts in parties like Pendergast
- Certain swing states were important, most campaign issues were due to special interests,
pocket book issues
- Industrialization major issue of that time
- Washington policy makers ignored the problems from industrialization, capitalist elite did not
want Washington to make it harder to do deals
- Moreover the institution of the presidency diminished after Lincoln.
- Political parties are not designed to govern, they’re designed to win elections
- Federal gov’t’s job was simply protecting security of U.S and enforces tariffs.
- Hayes had clean political record, a reformist, Tilden was unpopular although he had good
reputation and political record [on the face of it]
- Tilden 51% Hayes 48%
- Stalwart vs. Half Breeds
- National civil service league argued that rich white men should be civil servants because they
can’t be bought off due to their affluence.
- After Garfield died, Chester Arthur became president, actually passes some anti-corruption bills
American expansion and politics
- Presidential election of 1884: GOP: Blaine good candidate, but corruption allegations (from
railways) Democrats: Cleveland good choice for both radical and reformers, although
fathered illegitimate child: also ugly
- The mugwumps: both radical republican and democrats supported the democratic candidate
- But opposed by Tammany Hall, democratic machine in NY. - G. Cleveland became president, was a laissez-faire president, “don’t expect gov’t to solve your
- Tariffs main issue for Cleveland. Domestic manufacturing supports low tariffs, while workers and
raw industries want high tariffs
- Farmers normally hated high tariffs, republicans usually back high tariffs, democrats usually
want lower tariffs
- Cleveland wanted low tariffs to cut gov’t income, thought gov’t spent too much, also want to cut
down on growth of monopolies, want more competition.
- Cleveland also wanted to clean up the army pension system; by 1888 Republicans were
desperate to get rid of Cleveland.
- Harrison was new GOP candidate; his friends called him the human iceberg. Bad personality.
However GOP raised large war chest for campaign
- Cleveland got 60k more votes, but Harrison won key states, thus wins election
- GOP also have control of senate, and house of reps.
- Harrison made former army vet head of pensions.
- GOP was in power during first large welfare program
- McKinley tariffs
- 1890 Midterm year: democrats win back seats in house thanks to farmers upset by high tariffs
- Farming a high risk venture at the time, gov’t relief scarce
- 1867: The Grange, 1870 – 1.5 million members, styled after the masonic order
- Railway companies extremely hated for their size and affluence, state gov’t gave land all along
railway lines to help finance the construction.
- 1870s: fight with railway companies and the grange over freight rates: the courts determined
that the state had no right to regulate interstate commerce, it was a federal jurisdiction
- 1887: Interstate commerce act passed to regulate the rates, didn’t do much except guarantee
railway companies their rates.
- Long run: the grange did not survive, not enough money or clout to fight the railway companies
- Cooperatives formed by farmers frequently needed financing from banks, which gave
unfavourable interest rates
- The Alliance: started off with cotton farmers, also needed financing, 1/3 of cotton farmers were
on rented land
- Attempt to turn this farmer’s organization to go national, even perhaps become a political party:
eventual 3 million members, attempts to expand alliance west. As well western farmers started
to have recovery due to low land costs
- 1887-1897: western crops were wiped out 8 times by famine and grasshoppers, western Kansas
saw population drop by 50% in 5 years
- By then alliance starts to make sense to western farmers again
- Alliance begins to have some clout in Washington. But then squabbling began, southerners did
not want a third political party, while northerners did
- Alliance also wanted direct election of senators which didn’t occur until 1912
- 1892 Federal Election: Bad year for labour management relations. Unions were not legal in the
U.S until 1930s. A lot of strikes, mostly illegal, and violent
- 1892: Many conservative Americans were afraid of European style socialism coming
- Populist nominee: James Weaver only does well in farm regions. Grover Cleveland wins again
- Takes office in 1893, just in time for a 4 year depression. Begins with the railway industry, banks
that funded railway industry began to lose money.
- U.S did not have much money to back up its paper currency - 1897: 1/3 railway companies were bankrupt, the winter brought starvation cases, farm prices
drop 20%, high unemployment
- Cleveland concentrated his efforts on saving the gold standard, due to his laissez- faire
- Tariffs were again a problem
- 1894 midterms: GOP gains control of congress, but also populist vote goes up, centre collapses
- Major election fight: Gold vs. Silver in backing the currency
- Democratic convention in Chicago: silver adopted as platform
- W.J Bryan new democratic candidate. GOP picked William McKinley: favoured gold standard
- Bryan travelled the country, McKinley did campaigning from his house, albeit with large
amounts of money
- McKinley wins by 600k votes because of GOP scare tactics
- McKinley raises tariffs immediately, and pays back his friends, populists go for a political retreat
- Strains of growing the country continentally were immense, reason for difficult politics
- Continental railways were heavily subsidised by federal gov’t, after 1870 2 million immigrants
- 400k families took advantage of cheap land availability, 160 acres were not sustainable however
- Barbwire started to appear, lead to ranchers having difficulties, started range wars, farmers
- Estimated 400k Indians in western regions, Spanish brought horses which were of use for
natives, but also brought smallpox which weren’t good for the natives
- Buffalo began to vanish
- Federal gov’t mostly ignored the west, thought the west more of a dumping ground for the
natives. But when whites started to move into the west, the federal gov’t needed to do
something. First inclination was to segregate native peoples, put them on reserves
- Many native groups accepted this, while others did not.
- The Sioux was one that did not accept this new accommodation, eventually a whole range of
peoples were not accepting of the reserve system
- Some native groups backed the U.S army though, both sides commit atrocities
- Special commission formed in regards to what to do with western Indians, determined that
Indians must be put into reserves and Christianised, plus negotiation of treaties
- Most Indians accepted this, due to their deteriorating situation
- Longest resistance was with the apaches, largest and bloodiest was with the Sioux
- Sioux loses war, was pushed further onto to plains, after the powder river war, parts of the
Sioux accept the treaty
- Powder River treaty, army was supposed to stop miners trying to mine the black hills: the home
of the Sioux
- Custer does not want to stop the miners, federal gov’t want to buy the land, Sioux wanted too
- Talks collapsed, Sioux retaliates by killing miners, Gov’t responds by threatening to use force.
Sioux flees into the hinterland
- George Custer finds the Sioux, battle of Little Big Horn. His 800 men were against 5000 warriors.
Custer split his command, led a small group of men down valley. Custer dies
- Backlash, many wanted the Sioux to be exterminated, Sioux escapes to Canada. Sitting bull
returns to the U.S after government assurance that there was going to be no avenging.
- The Dawes act: tried to make farmers out of Indians. By early 20 century most reserves are
- But most natives did not prosper as farmers, Sioux takes up the ghost dance movement - At the reserve of Wounded Knee, members of the movement they tried to recruit sitting bull.
Gov’t worried that sitting bull would join.
- A group of native policemen pre-emptively tried to take sitting bull into custody
- Sitting Bull dies in the melee, 7 cavalry appears to round up remaining Sioux, and scuffle breaks
out, Sioux wiped out.
- Size matters, watch the margins, exclusive of endnotes, 7-10 sources from books or journal
articles, topic 1865-1945
- Disjointed movement for more liberal reforms
- Not all reforms are necessarily compatible, what is the definition of for example: better efficient
government? Lack of definition in what the progressives want
- Progressives want more governmental intervention in people’s lives
- Movement encompassed all tiers of government
- Also encompassed a movement to ban alcohol, as well as eugenics, and partial roots in racism
come from this
- Why would one think that the progressive movement was successful? – Gave the ideas that
things can be reformed to people, as well as some progress in improving lives of others
- Progressive movement seen by Americans as too white and too protestant
- How do the authors define their questions?
Industrial America late 19 century + Leisure
5 reasons why industrialization explodes
- Massive coal deposits
- Rapid spread of technological innovation and factory system
- A need for massive amounts of labour: which was readily available thanks to immigration
- Continual pressure on companies to be more innovative, and at a cheaper price
- There was a relentless drop in prices, made both factory work and selling cheaper. Hence more
people jumping in as entrepreneurs
- By 1900 the USA had more railways than all European countries combined
- Railway systems had pioneered many aspects of modern corporate life. For example, issuing
stock, separation of ownership and management. Creation of distribution and marketing
systems on national scale
- However, railway companies owed 5 billion dollars
- Railway companies one of the first to see the importance of the telegraph system
- As well, accounting mattered
- This means, railway companies could better predict profit or loss
- J. Gould, J. Hill, Collis Huntington: individuals who became vastly rich in the railway industry.
Controversial figures, portrayed as “bloodsuckers”
- J. Pulitzer: called Gould “a sinister figure”
- Gould and his cronies did take undercapitalized railway companies, and turn them into meaner,
leaner national companies
- Railways moving products across the country quickly could mean cheaper products
- Many small railway companies simply go out of business, many big railway cronies were
- Special deals, relationships with politicians etc. - Interstate congress act: try and prevent railways from acting like monopolies
- Doesn’t really work, railway companies have deep pockets and many lawyers, had the act tossed
- 1906: 7 railway companies had 2/3 the track in the US. Ironic though, as the big companies
often feel the recession first.
- Andrew Carnegie: started out as labourer, became regional manager of Railroad Company in 24.
Very good with stock, by investments alone, he was earning 50k a year. Average wage then 500
dollars. Eventually got interested in steel making, especially the Bessemer process. One of the
first people to use cost analysis. Believed in vertical integration, he wanted to own all the stages
- By 1900, his company Carnegie steel had huge profits. One of the first companies to show
innovative management, mass production, and sadly low wages for its employees.
- 1901: he sold out to JP Morgan. For 500 million dollars. Eventually forming US Steel, with 168k
- Carnegie felt guilty about making all his money, so he donated most of his wealth to charity
- Rise of the trust system: huge almost complete monopolies in economic sectors such as steel,
sugar, tobacco. Cooperation between small numbers of companies ensured high prices.
- One sector was oil; J. D Rockefeller by 1870 had aspirations for oil. Created standard oil.
Rockefeller was obsessive about detail, wanted best technology, distribution systems, and
lawyers. As well he wanted very few competitors, so he bought out or drive out his competitors.
Very ruthless business practices (and probably illegal). Eventually Rockefeller owned 90% of US
oil capacity. 1892: he attempted to take all of it, setting up Standard Oil trust. Most competitors
agreed, setting a board and standardising prices. Other sectors followed. Oil prices actually went
down, unlike sugar and tobacco.
- The Sherman act: an attempt to regulate trusts as a result of rising prices. The gov’t could sue
trusts, because they were too big, too monopolistic. The problem is, a competent lawyer could
chop the act to bits. Monopolistic activity and trusts were not clearly defined. Between 1890
and 1904 Washington only prosecuted 18 cases
- Standard Oil got around this by changing its internal structure. Called itself a holding company.
- 1911: Supreme Court ruled that Standard Oil holding company was a trust. Company broken up
- National mythology of small business in American been replaced by big national corporations
- Most of American industry was in the Midwest, other places, like Rhode Island became centre of
cotton industry due to the location of factories being there.
- Income disparity in north and south, Americans move to cities hoping for factory jobs.
Mechanization of farms means less hands needed.
- American industrial force quadruples
- 1880s railways employ 800k people, mostly unskilled labour
- Many industrial sectors kept costs down by subcontracting labour to other companies
- Downturn means layoffs, discipline was harsh with the presence of foremen.
- Average American labourer earned $1.70 a day, if bricklayer 3 bucks, cotton worker: 80 cents
- Factory shifts: 12 hrs. A day, 6 days a week, horrible working conditions. Child labour common,
labour deaths common, disease rates were huge
- 1889: Federal gov’t determined that 2k men died for the railways, 20k injured. Wages so low
because of almost inexhaustible supply of immigrants - 1870s 13% of women worked outside their home, 60% of those were in domestic service. Many
women abandoned domestic service between 1870s and 1900. Number of women working
triples, and strides to work in factories
- By 1900 women 17% of work force, many women joins workforce because they were not
needed on farms. A very cheap source of labour. Women were expected to work until they got
married, and many were fired after they get married
- Women were happy to earn their own money, 1890s women begin to dominant clerical work, a
previously male occupation. Women are better at typing than men. But because its considered a
“female” job, lower wages became the result
- Mythology of the self-made man appearing. A leading advocate of this was Horatio Alger.
Carnegie would have argued that the self-made men would have had to do bad things to get to
the top. Carnegie was the exception to the rule. Mobility was only possible usually in the
working class. But it’s very rare to come up from labourers to become super rich.
- Wages did go up eventually, but it did not account for inflation etc.
- By 1890, ten percent of American families owned 70% of the wealth in the U.S.
- 1890s almost 50% of labourers earned less than the poverty line
- Many labourers tried to form unions in order to address this
- As well, union breaking was easy
- Skilled workers did not want to join unions, as well one can play at nationalism to break unions
- William Silvis: for the creation of unions with political might as well as inclusion of women in
unions , but against Asian immigration. Managed to get 300k people, but he died suddenly in
- Knights of labour appear, but did not like strikes. Only the arrival of Powderly, who takes over
knights of labour, allows the group to become more assertive.
- The union wanted a federal gov’t income tax, end to child labour, and wage equality for both
- Concessions were made in an example with a railway companies
- Union memberships eventually included some women, and even some black Americans
- Knights though had a series of failed strikes, 1890s knights become a spent force.
- Samuel Gompers appears, forms the American Federation of Labour. He supported a less
combative approach to owners. He was solely focused on wages
- AFL becomes a trust almost, becomes a federation of many unions nationally. AFL gets 1.6
- By early 20 century, only 5% of workers are unionized. Between 1881 and 1905 there were 37k
strikes, labour unrest considerable and often violent
- Unions and management became more polarized, management often brought other workers, or
thugs to break up strikes, and unions would fight back.
- 1893-1894: Coleman Company: they made passenger carriages. Big strike: got exceedingly nasty.
Dozens killed, army brought in. Federal gov’t used Sherman act to break up the union, claiming
it was illegal trust. Eugene debs led the strike, was put in prison.
- After that, judges began cracking down on whatever union rights existed, across the country
- Eugene Debs proclaimed himself as a socialist
- Negative view of unions last until the 1930s (arguably)
- By 1900 US is the world’s leading industrial power, regardless of labour unrest. Occurred in 30
- Crethion of the leisure industry
- 19 century, many Americans regarded leisure as sinful, frowned upon by many people. - Industriathzation creates a need for leisure, there was a deep suspicion of leisure
- Late 19 century: mass immigration, mass industrialization, rural depopulation; one begins to
see many people desperately seeking leisure
- An upper class obsession between wholesome activities and unwholesome.
- Attempt by upper and middle class to enforce wholesome activities on the lower class
- Drinking was a popular activity. Some cities, like Baltimore of Cincinnati, with large German
populations, a recreation of former homeland.
- NY had 10k by 1900
- Neighbourhood bars enforced group identity, masculine identity, and a centre of politics for
- Saloons spent a lot of money on décor, give illusion of temporary luxury
- In contrast to the family centered existence of the middle and upper class.
- Bars were also centres for criminal activity
- Sport was another aspect of leisure: first widely followed sport was baseball
- Baseball was first professional sport in the U.S. 1860s basic American baseball that present day
is very similar to appears
- An eventual business structure appears. Red stockings in Cincinnati was the first team to put
men under contract
- National league formed in 1876. They limited only one team per city. 1890 baseball was big
- Working class embraced baseball most. J Pulitzer was first publisher to have a sports section in
the newspapers th
- For Mark Twain “baseball became symbol of raging, tearing, booming of 19 century”
- Racism rampant in professional baseball
- Jackie Robinson was first professional black player in white leagues. His personality allowed him
to take a lot of abuse
- Boxing also became a popular sport. Sullivan a prominent boxer in early times of sports
- Football also emerged in the late 19 century, initially a upper class sport: at colleges
- First intercollege game was in 1860 between Rutgers and Princeton. 1905: 18 players died,
because they played without equipment
- Walter Camp [Cornell]: modern creator of American game of football. He believed that football
was warfare. Prepares young men for eventual war
- Many people did not like that connection between football and war.
- Rise of amusement parks like Coney Island
- Ragtime: piano entertainment by black musicians for men. Scott Joplin was one of these
- Ragtime was one of the few instances where blacks and whites mixed in the south
- Leisure was a desperately needed thing for many working Americans
- Mythological notion of life in the American Midwest
- Nostalgic view back of American culture
- Most white settlers in the west was pretty mundane, although not too unpleasant
- Some mythology that surrounded famous western individuals such as David Crocket and D.
Boone were somewhat exaggerated.
- Kit Carson: led people across mohabi desert to western us - Main character of Huckleberry Finn rejects civil society… a notion among some Americans
fleeing to the west
- Others think that the western settlers are actually bringing civilization to the west
- Teddy Roosevelt moved to North Dakota when his wife died, to restart as a cattle rancher
(although a bad one). But his experience changes his life, wrote a book called “The Winning of
the West”; a history of the ongoing western settlement
- For many, the west was a stage for social Darwinism
- 1902: novel called “The Virginian”
- Most men in US army were not there because it was their choice, poor working conditions.
- Life was not glamorous for the cowboy either, much of it was an invention from Joseph McCoy
- He saw an opportunity in the cattle ranching business in Abilene Kansas
- McCoy was also a PR guy, hires cowboys to go around America to do acts, first year he bought
and sold 35k steers, doubled every year after that
- Being a cowboy was not the way to become rich, $30 a month wages, not much better than
- Billy the kid
- The average cowboy lasted 2-3 years, before dying, injured or quitting. Age: 18-21
- 20% of cowboys were not white, due to major need for labour, colour was not a barrier
- W. Hickock: marshal in Abilene Kansas, mythology was that he was a tough marshal, but in
reality he only shot two men in self defense. He was murdered in deadwood south Dakota while
- Most of the violence was between ranchers and farmers
- Range wars fade by 1885: too many cows, many ranchers were in big financial trouble… farming
takes over much of the west
- West settles down, mythology becomes more pronounced for a way of life that no longer exists
- Industrialization and transformation of the U.S
Post slavery America
- Most slaves were illiterate, or had a lack of skills, not very useful in the new American economy
- Some stayed with their former masters, others moved north and west
- White planters were not happy, as labour prices went up
- Demand for black institutions: churches and schools. Most white churches don’t let blacks in the
- Churches also doubled as social places, black churches were fervently republican during the
reconstruction era. Thus churches also very political
- Many black politicians were ministers
- When schools became publically funded, white schools were far better funded than black ones
- The KKK made schools a target, 1877: 80% of blacks still illiterate, but improving.
- The Jim Crow laws were taken by granted by whites and blacks, attempts to use federal law
against segregation rarely succeeded. Courts would rule, congress reject thanks to democratic
- Some blacks were in favour of separation
- Black codes, white southern states come up with ‘labour regul