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Galen Perras

12/10/11 U.S in WWI - Serbian nationalists kill archduke of Austria - 6 weeks in war erupts - U.S declares neutrality, but composed of immigrants, many Americans were not in favour of neutrality - Many nations not in favour of dual citizenship, many recent immigrants got draft notices - Irish Americans hoped that Britain would lose, most Americans picked the allies to win - Wilson in 1914 was worried about a world were an autocratic militaristic Germany won the war - Wilson wanted a peaceful world order in U.S eyes - If worried that Germany might win, neutrality may be problem - Americans lend money to the French and Britain - As American funding and aid arrives for allies, Germany does not see U.S as a neutral power - Wilson still does not want to fight. Major initial problem for the U.S was the Royal Navy - Naval blockade, confiscated all ships heading to continental Europe, including neutral flagged. - American trade with Germany was not large, but existed - Brits felt no choice, alienating some part of U.S opinion. - German response to UK naval power with U-boats - Targeting merchant shipping, some German U-boat commanders started to attack passenger liners, and neutral ships… Americans died as well: Lusitania - Wilson was not happy with the sinking, not happy with German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare around UK. Demanded that Germany abandon this policy, but Wilson will not move from neutrality - Germans apologize, rescind unrestricted submarine warfare… Will now target only belligerent flagged ships - Late 1915: Wilson wants more money for defense, particularly for the navy… opposition from Irish Americans, German Americans and pacifists - 1916: passes act to make it illegal to buy passage on any ships belonging to belligerent power: president vetoed, limited freedoms - Even normal attacks against belligerent ships caused American deaths 1915-1916 - Wilson accuses the Germans of illegal tactics, cuts diplomatic relations with Germany… Calls for both powers to follow international rules of war - 1916: U.S. Banks have lent a lot of money to Britain and France more than 2 billion dollars - By 1917, Victory is the only thing that can justify losses - Many Americans fear that the allied powers cannot be led to lose war, can’t let them default of debt - 27 million U.S funds to Germany - 1917: Germany high command calculates that the war needs to be won quickly, or Germany could lose. One objective was to starve Britain to submission, unrestricted submarine warfare again. - Germany knew that this action will probably bring the U.S against them. They calculate that Germany could win the war before American military might made a difference - 1917: Germany is in effect a military dictatorship - 1917 Feb 3: Wilson sends message to Berlin, German ambassador must leave, American ambassador withdraws, no longer any diplomatic relationship with Germany - March: 5 American cargo ships sunk… 24 Feb: Zimmerman telegram nd - 2 of April, Wilson goes to congress and asks for a declaration of war, little opposition 82-6, 370-50 - German attacks on American ships, Protect their financial investment in allied cause, American cultural links with fellow democracies in Europe was strong: reasons - American army woefully ill-equipped to fight, May 1917: selective service act… basically a draft. 18-45 years old men have to register - 24 million men register, 3 million are drafted, 1.3 million men volunteered, 11k women serve in the navy as volunteer, freeing men from more feminine jobs - Congress created a council of national defense, build a war economy. War industries board led by Bernard Baruch to organize the factories, helping them convert to war factories - New laws regarding food production, fuel production… 5000 gov’t boards created to run war effort, many corporations use the war to polish their public images - Gov’t froze anti-trust activities during war, to allow corporations to be more efficient - Corporate mergers went up sharply, some sector profits went up… this apparatus disappears quickly after war ends, goes back to laissez-faire - 2 million Americans goes to france, John Pershing leads to American expeditionary force - U.S enters the war, but does not make formal alliances with UK or France. U.S loathe to make alliances generally, 1917: American opinion of allied effort is poor - Pershing reluctant to mix Allied and US troops, he wants distinct American units under their own commanders - Americans eventually agree to link with French army to fight in the French sector of the line - Took time to get American troops in meaningful numbers in the battlefield - Allies basically win the ground war on their own, US separation cost lives - 260k African Americans served in the army, segregated army - Most black troops did not see combat, digging trenches, working on trains etc. Not given weapons due to racial profiling, white officers do not want to treat them equally. Persistent belief that black troops were not good. - Many black troops were surprised in a good way by their treatment by French… many black troops stayed in France - 5 war bond drives: 36 billion raised, other 1/3 paid through taxes. Top rate for richest Americans were 70%, taxed alcohol, cars and luxury goods - Committee of public information formed, to convince Americans of the just cause. Progressives backed the war as well - Super Patriotism: German American lives were tough, German language teachers labelled as traitors, German language books burned… Hamburgers became liberty sandwiches - 65k men claimed contentious objective status when drafted - Wilson claimed he has heart for pacifists - Eugene Debs and Victor Berger both socialists opposed the war. Both winded up in prison, Berger won a seat while in congress - Harriet Stanton Blatch a feminist, supported the war - One could be charged with sedition for simply criticizing the president, or using profane language against the gov’t - Rose pastor stokes a socialist was sent to prison for 10 years, commuted though, Debs in 10 years in prison also, not commuted - The inquiry: group of academics giving advice to president - Jan 1918: Woodrow Wilson outlines his 14 points, 8 outlines boundaries s of Europe, points regarding unrestricted naval navigation, freer trade and cutting weapons, a league of nations - Germany accepts this, wans an armistice, Allies were less warm to this prospect - Eventually though, Armistice signed in June, Treaty Versailles signed ,months later in France - Allies makes Germany pay war reps - Third of the new elected senate backed Wilson, “irreconcilables” opposes all Wilson’s points - “Reservationists” willing to work with Wilson to compromise… But Wilson unwilling, as a result the treaty did not pass - Embarks on a national tour, but Wilson suffers massive stroke…. Becomes ineffective the rest of the presidency. Edith, the wife practically comes president - Lodge, Borah still oppose Wilson’s treaty. - The treaty of should America join the league, it was rejected… the reason was article 10, the collective security clause. - James Cox, Franklin Roosevelt was democratic candidates, they get clocked - Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge wins big The roaring 20s - A small depression/major recession right after WWI that extended into the early 20s, due to the post war drawdown - Inevitable difficulties of managing transition from war economy to peace economy - Fears of radicalism 1919-1920 a lot of strikes - By 1922: recession over. 1922: 76 billion GNP 1927: 97 billion GNP 1929: 43% increase in 7 years GNP - Prices held steady - Unemployment in 1922 was 12% became 3% in 1927, per capital income went 30% - Blue collars workers saw wages go up 20%, working hours dropped - 1927 study: the best is yet to come - Consumer spending becomes a driver in the economy. Spending on new products, irons, dryers, washing machines etc. - 60% of American homes had electricity 15 million electric irons, 7 million vacuums… the all- electric kitchen. 70% of factories powered directly in electrical grid - The car explodes in the 1920s mass production allows cars like the model t to be available to the middle class - Car registration 8 million 1920, 23 million in 1929. 60% of American families owned at least one car in 1929 - 1929: Car industry was almost 10% of wages in economy - 1921: The Federal highways act, provides money to the states for road construction - Road network 1918: 7k miles, 9 years 50k miles - Cars meant new tax revenues - Model T for $400, existence of the car allows the creation of suburbs, but breakdown of social cohesion, urban sprawl - As a result, shopping malls with parking lots appear. First mall in Kansas city Missouri - Drive in restaurants appear, cars for many teenagers became sexual – moveable bedrooms - 1920s were the decade of the corporation. American FA was not isolationist with economic diplomacy - 1929: foreign investment came to 70 billion dollars in other countries for the U.S - U.S exporting 60+% of its finished goods - 1920s antitrust activities nearly stops, 1930: 120 corporations control half of the U.S economy  perhaps efficiencies - 1926: Ford had 10k dealerships, 1930: chain dept. stores had 30% of shares. A&P 17k stores - 1929: 75% of all cars were being bought with credit - Advertising was vastly important, mass circulation magazines, radio… 1924: U.S companies spending 2 billion a year on advertising - Mid 1920s 600k Americans worked in the industry, era of celebrity advertising - Mid 20s pervasive notion that business was natural culture - 12 men on the bottom ranks of business and forged them into organizations conquered world - Tough decade for unions, rosters shrank, not all industries succeeded, Farmers did not enjoy the 1920s - McNairy-Haugen act to help farmers, subsidising the agricultural industry, congress wants to keep farm workers happy - Consumers this looks like price fixing - 1920: Republicans took control: Warren G Harding becomes president, Andrew Mellon financier, Herbert Hoover – future president are backers… Harding not ambitious but can be pushed - Notion of relaxed, less active white house was a relief for Americans - Harding administration was one of the most corrupt administrations in history, mid-level bureaucrats were not clean. Veteran’s bureau, justice dept. - Albert B Fall: Teapot Dome, an oil concession in Wyoming. Fall took 600k in “bribes” from oil companies for rights to drill at teapot dome - Harding was not personally implicated, died in 1923 on visit to Vancouver - Calvin Coolidge becomes president after death, deals with most of the carnage of corruption. - He led an uninteresting laid back life, but not lay back of businesses. He cut taxes, tended to appoint pro-business people in economic boards. Ruthless in dismissing corrupt officials like Fall - Calvin Coolidge was a clean politician; democrats in 1924 were weak position. William McAdoo and A.E Smith were democratic candidates - McAdoo was Wilson’s son in law, baggage with relationship with Wilson, his clients involved with Teapot Dome. Smith was reformer but was catholic. John Davis chosen as candidate, Coolidge doubles the vote against Davis - Republicans lost seats in congress though, margins smaller, losing votes in northern cities - Traditional working class republicans see the party becoming a tool of the rich, starting to shift their vote - Coolidge went on until 1928: some Americans expected him to run again, a doctor declared that in 1928 Coolidge was declared insane(modern classification of clinical depression), also health problems - Herbert Hoover was successor to Coolidge - 1920s Urban population in U.S hit 50% - 68 American cities with 100k population or up - Southern blacks are leaving south for north for jobs and escape of separatism - 30% of blacks were urbanized - 1922: 10 American magazines each were selling 10 million copies - Norman Rockwell, readers digest, Radio era begins with station KDKA - 1922: 500 radio stations in U.S, 1926: radio station conglomerates, NBC, CBS etc. - Corporate domination with super stations that have massive transmitters that can have massive range, mass national audiences profitable - Amos and Andy radio show: pretending to be black men in the south... made the pepsodent toothpaste company immensely profitable, extremely racist show. - All across U.S you can get same shows and same news, regionalism breaks down a little. U.S preferred a private model - 1927: congress had to establish a license system due to too many radio stations interrupting each other’s signals. Also worry about some of the content, 1934 the FCC created to ensure nothing illegal or “dangerously offensive” is going on - FCC had little power, could not do anything with advertising product - Movies take of in 1920s, The Great Train robbery in 1908 was first movie. 1912: 13k movie theaters in the US. - Early movie industries shifted from New York to Hollywood California: far from New York and had good weather, Hollywood had low taxes… Hollywood eclipses New York as centre of film making - Big grand theaters appears: 50-70 million people were seeing movies a day - Movie stars become first real celebrities, media companies follow these stars - Movie stars however was bonded to an almost slavery contract, forced to take roles - “The Jazz Singer” the first talking movie - Talking movies destroyed careers of silent movie actors - Most movies were tasteless, critics say these movies will destroy theater - Movie industry incorporated its own moral code, movies made cultural contributions - Charlie Chaplin was a socialist, filmed anti-Hitler movie. A British actor, left U.S for his political views - Walt Disney: creation of animated films - Intellectuals were also high era of culture for 1920s. Many believed that WWI destroyed the old, translated to short skirts, women smoking in public, notion of marriage seems outdate - Jazz, not rigid… Whites took a fondness of Jazz. US army allows Jazz to becomes popular - Black musicians spreads around the U.S, literally spreading the drama, spreads to more white audience - George Gershwin “Rhapsody in Blue”, Louis Armstrong etc. - Ezra Pound: poet that says the U.S made a mistake in going to war. - Jazz Era novelist: F Scott Fitzgerald  living embodiment of jazz age literature. 1925: the great Gatsby - Jazz meant nothing for the minorities or poor - Mencken: cynic hated most things about America. He founded American Mercury so controversial publications can be published - Ernest Hemingway: not as cynical as Mencken, but not a rosy view of U.S either. Rise of American fundamentalism - Many colonial American states owe their existence to religious groups settling - George Whitefield: revivalist style sermon  the great awakening… the revivalist style still exists - Many coming to Whitefield were working class non-educated people, the established churches become the old light, the Baptist… newer churches become the new light - Political ramifications: the old light backed the British, the new light backed the patriots during the revolutionary war - After war, backlash against old established churches. 1787 American constitution’s first amendment: churches stripped their right to tax, and land. First amendment: Guarantees rendgious freedom, church and state are separate - 2 great awakening, a response to the clericalism of the French revolution, also rise of liberalism (which was anti-religious) in Europe… a rise of Calvinism with the second awakening - Many in the new light disputed this, argued that people were moral free agents - A revival of revivalism - Church membership rose considerably during second awakening… the abolitionist movement strong in this second awakening - By 1860s, growing controversy in western society about evolution… 1859 book by Charles Darwin: change the way we view about humanity - Religious people understood this implications of this immediately - Christianity in the U.S split over this issue, a union theological seminary in NY was liberal; saw no issues in believing in both science and bible. - Princeton theological seminary went the other way - Many American evangelicals began to study eschatology (the study of the end times) - Dispensational pre-Millennialism: Christ was going to come quickly, and bring the rapture, by praying for the rapture - Many also embraced the social gospel: belief but also practice through charity, good works and reforming society… many progressives were of the social gospel - Clash between evangelical and liberals went wide open after WWI - Lyman Stewart and Milton Stewart: spreading of pamphlets advocating 5 Christian principles - Debate occurs… fundamentalists lose debate - Butlers law (1925): Butler’s law made it illegal in any school in Tennessee to teach evolution - ACLU (American civil liberties union): looking for a teacher to fight this law… publically asked someone to be the test case. John Scopes (High School biology teacher) volunteered to be the test case - Clarence Darrow lawyer for the ACLU, Jennings Bryan: lawyer for the state of Tennessee - Scopes monkey trial was the first but not the last of the culture clash between evangelicals against humanists and non-religious people on the other regarding what type of state to create - John Ralston was presiding judge on the case, opened every day with Christian prayer, he denied Darrow’s attempts to bring eyewitnesses with the scientific community - Everyone believed that Scopes would be convicted, which occurred, ACLU appealed, the Tennessee supreme court threw out the ruling on a technicality - 1968: state of Arkansas, U.S supreme court finally ruled that evolution could be taught in the classroom - Trial ended badly for everyone… John Scopes lost his job, became eventually an oil man. Judge Ralston was defeated in the next election. Darrow saw his reputation sullied by this; people didn’t like the cross examination treatment of Bryan. Law stayed in Tennessee until 1968, but there was no enforcement - Fundamentalist: made to look silly after the trial. Fundamentalists deliberately fall off the radar - Fundamentalists tried to build communities in which they only dealt with each other - 1929: Several states tried to pass laws banning evolution, but gov’t reluctant to enforce this law 21/10/2011 More inter war years - Bolstead Act - The prohibition of alcohol - Early years… President Washington took 13k troops under his command during farmer rebellion regarding the limitation of alcohol - Centrality of many Americans of alcohol - Lincoln talked about alcohol being an Egyptian angel of death  led to temperance movements, limit or eliminate consumption of alcohol - They don’t take off until the 1830s and 1840: because the movement started in the upper middle class - But 1840s, 9 men got together in a bar to pledge not to drink, the Washingtonians… a female version: the Martha Washingtonians. This takes off because the guys are normal dudes, no strings attached, just aiming to stop drinking. 1841: 200k joined movement - Per capita alcohol consumption cut in half - 1851: state of Maine went for prohibition: 1875: 13 of 31 states had similar laws. Although not enforced - Politics take effect, immigrants less keen on alcohol prohibition… Northern republicans reluctant, southern democrats with support of farmers also reluctant… Also booze making is easy - Prohibition fades, 1870s women leads fight for prohibition emerge - 1000 WCTU posts… they wanted no alcohol but also social reform - Progress still slow - Eventually becomes a culture war, religion, ethics, social classes all involved - WWI: less grain available to make alcohol due to war effort - Many Americans associated beer with Germany: push becomes more intense - Congress move to amend constitution to ban alcohol: cannot sell or make alcohol  although it is not a law, so a law was required as well. Thus the Volstead Act: prohibition - Prohibition bureau established to police these laws, congress did not give bureau lots of money though: many politicians were not very keen on this legislation, consumption of alcohol is not illegal, and also people expected to naturally quit drinking - Thus a market still existed, many states passed baby Volstead acts, but those were not well enforced because of political reasons - Number of alcoholics dropped, treating alcoholics dropped, crimes with alcohol involved dropped, also consumption simply fell - When prohibition ended 1933, consumption was half of what it was 1919 - Easy to still import alcohol to USA, also very profitable. - Kennedy family also made lots of money, eventually fuelled a president - Al Capone, Italian mafia loved prohibition… - Gangs in Chicago fought for turf - Prohibition not working, requires another constitutional amendment  although fairly difficult - Instead thnational constitutional convention occurs where they will vote on the amendment - 1933 5 Dec the process was over  prohibition eliminated in 1934 - Some states continued with prohibition locally, some counties are still dry - 15 states set up state control systems - The end of WWI, rise of Soviet Union were threatening… th - Late 19 century, notion of foreign infection( bringing alien concepts) - Many become attracted to socialism, Eugene Debbs became radicalized as he participated in Unions - 1897: Debbs came to political crossroads: determined socialism was only answer… Formed the U.S socialist party. 1900-1920 Debs was socialist candidate for president - 1901: Socialist American party emerges formally… The party was factionalized under people like Berger and Hillquit - Haywood, leader of IWW( Wobbles) not very popular with the police due to his revolutionary ideals - 1917: Bolshevik revolutions scare many Americans… the red scare - 1920s elections, the red scare fades away - May 1920: 2 men robbed and killed accountant of shoe factory and his bodyguard… Two local Italian anarchists were charged with this crime, judge was biased: sentenced and executed to death - Two gentlemen became martyrs to the socialist cause - Debs dies in 1920s - Stalin did not make it easy to be an American communist Women and disadvantaged groups - One of the most patriotic things to do is risking one’s life for the state - Black people did this, although some white northerners discounted their usefulness. - Black troops continued to be part of the American armies - W. Trotter an influential black man, invited by teddy Roosevelt for reception - T. Roosevelt saw himself a successor to Lincoln etc. however most white voters did not have liberal views on race at the time. Thus teddy had to move cautiously. Low level positions were given to blacks - 1906: army riot in Brownsville Texas: black soldiers falsely accused for killing white soldiers, black soldiers were discharged, some even won the medal of honour, president blocked attempts to reinstate those men - Lynching remained problem in the south, peaked in the 1890s, but still common after this period, a widely accepted activity in parts of the south - Made it hard to be a moderate like booker t Washington - WEB Dubois: first black man to obtain a Ph.D. Although an initial moderate, he became more and more radicalized, eventually critiquing booker t Washington - 1905: Dubois led 25 black activists to Niagara falls for conference - These two poles, the moderate led by booker t Washington and the more radical personified by Dubois - The Dubois school come to dominate led by African American academics - 1909: Dubois allied himself with white publisher, to form NAACP: national association for the advancement of the coloured people - Initially it had a small membership - 400k blacks served in WWI, 1200 became officers, rare to have anyone above captain - The most significant aspect of black participation in the war was economic, more hands were needed in factories - Many blacks moved north - As more blacks moved to previously white dominated neighbourhoods, many blacks were shunted into particular committees - Booker t Washington died in 1915, Du Bois found a new rival for leadership of black community, Markus Garvey - Garvey: UNIA united Negros improvement association. He believed in pan-Africanism, believed in business - Du Bois thought Garvey was a joke, Du Bois wanted to lead the movement with academics, but Garvey believed academics talk but don’t do anything - Garvey however was not a honest businessman, but he did create a notion of black pride, which lingered - 1910-1920: the black population of NY doubled - The Harlem Renaissance: mostly of a literature nature… - By early depression, Langston Hughes, a black poet became radicalized. His white patron, cut him off financially - Problem for the Harlem renaissance was that it lacked a solid framework, and had no impact on the regular life of blacks - Harlem hit extremely hard with stock market crash - Black men had trouble exercising their right to vote, but American women had no right at all - White female activists wanted to work together with black men, but black men did not want to work together, for fear of diluting their message - Cult of Domesticity: cult of churches, they believe that women’s natural role was to be at home, appealed with upper and middle class women with financial means - Francis Willard: dean at North Western university , creates the WCTU: women’s Christian temperance union: a prohibition group. Willard wanted to transform American political life - By 1890: WCTU had 1800 members, first mass female organization - Co-education began to appear, however Ivy league schools had female colleges that were attached to the universities - Many of these colleges had prevailing concepts of feminism were pushed - Extra-curricular activities allowed men and women to mingle - 1880-1900 divorce rate went up 100% - Getting to vote was not easy, only 4 states in the Union gave women the state vote, all in the west. - Local suffrage movements held street meeting, years before WWI, a transition of female leadership, - Replaced by a younger and more aggressive leadership group - Carrie Chapman Catt: took over from Susan B Anthony, Chapman wanted to be more aggressive, championed the “winning plan” - She wanted a broad grassroots organization, under tight central control: NWSA: national women’s suffrage association - Some women opposed this. Josephine Dodge a widow, attempted to stop women from getting the vote, some women thought politics was an ugly man’s business - NY eventually gave women the right to vote, after referendum… - Some women thought however that this was too slow moving, Alice Paul was one of those women - She interacted with British suffragists who were much more radical - Hunger strikes, picketing occurred. WWI comes to US sees another split - Catt sees the war as an opportunity to show good citizenship, however Paul formed peace parties saying the war was a distraction to real issues - National vote comes for women in 1920: promised by Wilson, 1919 congress after painstaking work passed constitutional amendment for vote for the women - Women did not have much interest in some of the men’s work, such as metal working - Margaret Sanger, one of the early women to advocate for birth control, she had to leave the country eventually because it was illegal to sell birth control products - 1920s: female work force increased by 2 mill, the percentage of work force however did not shift - Number of women in unions hovered around 3 percent - Most of the women in workforce worked female jobs… - Most good medical schools allowed only 5% of their class to be female, female doctors actually declined from 1910-1930 - Number of women going to college doubled - 1930: 50k women went to college, 1920: 12-13k - Most women took “female” professions - Cigarette companies advertised their products to women as torches of freedom, allowing women to be more “men-like” - 19 amendment guts the first wave feminist movement - By 1920s, people who argued of fair distribution of wealth were accused to being socialist etc. - Marriage and birth rates tumbled during the great depression - First female member of the cabinet was appointed in 1933, as secretary of labour - She did not make women’s rights a priority 04/11/2011 American isolationism - George Washington advocated for no permanent alliances with Europe - Isolationism was easy because of geography and weak neighbours - However isolationism as a long term foreign policy begins to fade - Started first with Spanish American war, also with Teddy Roosevelt as a president, he was an imperialist - By the 1900s, the US was the world’s greatest economy, thus beginning to become involved at least economically - The US is not against enacting against events, but they do not like entangling themselves with issues - The US does not want to fight wars they do not start, thus that is why the US did not sign on to the league of nations - R. Lafollette, W. Borah, are individuals who opposed the US joining the league of nations - These individuals were at the apex of the isolationist ideal - White, protestant and if are of the female gender makes one more likely to be isolationist - If one is from the deep south or mid-west, they are more likely to be isolationist - German Americans and politically active women were also more likely to be isolationist - Gerald P Nye, Lafollette, Borah had an ideological aspect to the isolationism. These people were from the mid-west - 1921: President Harding invited the world’s major naval powers to talk of naval disarmament. Naval Washington treaty was made - President Coolidge allowed the US to join the international courts, but the senate rejected joining the world court, for fear of impinging on American sovereignty - US had an active foreign policy when it comes to trade and commerce - American investment is a big priority, however US does not want to sign on to any inter-alliance treaties - The Dawes plan, an agreement that never ending reparation does not help Europe. Limit reparations to 1.5 billion over 4-5 years. - Americans gave credit to Germany, Germany paid off reparations, France and Britain paid back loans from America - Herbert Hoover takes over in 1929 - In 1930, Japan and the US signed the London treaty, an extension of the Washington naval treaty - Hoover’s priorities, less armament, less expenditures on defense, more international cooperation - Japanese military occupy Manchuria, Japanese government not keen on this, but does not give back Manchuria either - Henry Stimson, Hoover’s secretary of state, wanted strong sanctions against japan - In the end, League of Nations report blames japan for its aggressiveness, and blames china for its weakness. - Japan walks out of the league - Adolf Hitler comes to power in 1933 - FDR was more of an internationalist, but not keen on allying with other nations - FDR recognizes the USSR, because Soviet Union economy was doing fine during depression, America wants trade. - FDR has been suspicious with Japan, thus a better relationship with the USSR would mean Japan would have to worry also about the USSR - W. Millis rights a book called the road to war, he argued that the US was tricked into fighting WWI, and by munitions makers and bankers, who wanted to profit from going to war - By 1935, “triumph” of isolationism politically, international situation begins to decline, first with Italian invasion of Ethiopia - Hitler denounces treaty of Versailles, openly rearms - League of Nations reacts weakly - Congress reacts into passing the first neutrality act. If two countries declare war on each other, the US president has no choice but to embargo the victim and aggressor alike. - FDR accepted this, because polls tell FDR that 70% of Americans believe that Millis and Nye are right in their accusation of bankers and other corporations greed while soldiers died in WWI - Massive peace movement in the late 30s in American colleges, 1936 peace strike - In 1936: Spain falls into civil war, congress passes a third neutrality act stating one cannot help factions in a civil war s - Gerald Nye disagreed with this, felt they should support the Spanish government - 94% of Americans stated the dominant foreign policy goal is staying out of wars, in 1937 - Fourth neutrality act: Americans were banned to travel on ships of belligerent nations
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