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Ryme Seferdjeli

HIS2160 Orientalism - Prior to Said’s orientalism definition, the definition was for an “oriental scholarship”, eastern languages - A study of western discourse, academic etc. - Said looks at the literature, the depiction of Orientals in western culture Orientalism: a manner of regularized (or orientalised) writing, vision, and study, dominated by imperatives, perspectives, and ideological biases ostensibly suited to the Orient The orient: is constructed by and in relations to the west. It is a mirror image of what is inferior and alien (other) to the west The Oriental Said “The orient has been a European invention…. Orient has also helped to define the west, as a contrasting image, idea, personality, experience… The orient is an integral part of European material…” - In orientalism, men are depicted as dangerous; women are considered to be eager to be dominated, but also exotic - The oriental is a single image, sweeping generalization - Said’s orientalism: the western style for dominating, restructuring and having authority over the orient, closely linked to socio-economic and political institutions - An expansion of colonial expansion coincides with an expansion in oriental studies - After WWII, the US dominated the Orient, scholars began to translate the writings of the orient into English - A true conquest required the knowledge of the people Criticism of orientalism - Generalization? - May lead to focus on study of representations only - Bernard Lewis’s critique: Two days to look at: 1798: Napoleon’s expedition, 1978: Iranian revolution The Ottoman Empire in the 19 centuryh - Main ottoman institutions: Sultan, Janissaries(abolish) and the Military, the Religious institution, Sultan = Caliph - Far reaching parts of the empire were difficult to administrate - Ottoman Sultan also supervised annual pilgrimage, Sheikh Al-Islam was the centre of Turkish religious institution - Legal system was tied to the state apparatus, providing religious legitimacy to the ottoman empire - Qadi (Islamic judge) and Mufti(Sunni Islamic scholar) were paid by the state - No notion of a nation within the empire - No common Ottoman consciousness th - Ottoman empire well into decline in the 18 century, no more military expansion, difficult to maintain its borders - Factors are either internal decline, or European expansion - Rise of local dynasties in some provinces, ethnic tribal groups obtained greater control - Nonetheless, the existence of the empire was never put into question, just the balance/division of power - 18 century, Ottoman empire challenged by growing power in Europe, revolutions in Europe also affected the Ottomans, French and Industrial revolution The Eastern Question: tensions between Ottoman Empire and European countries, the international relations between these states - A series of conflicts between Russia and Ottoman Empire resulted in catastrophic Ottoman defeats - British became interested in the area, predominantly with the acquisition with the lands of India, thuth wanting a safe corridor of communications, Britain became interested in the Middle East - 19 century, Britain wanted to keep the territorial integrity of the Ottomans Napoleon’s invasion of Egypt - Weak ottoman control of the region - British and Ottomans drive out the French after a 3 year invasion from 1798-1801 - The beginning of European physical intervention in the middle east - French technical superiority proved that the middle eastern region was extremely weak - Started the beginning of Egyptian nationalism, emerging Egypt as a sate, detachment of Egypt from empire - Beginning of a movement of reforms, with consequences throughout the empire - Defensive developmentalism Muhammad Ali - Founder of modern Egypt, but not Egyptian, rather ethnic Albanian… tasked with driving French out of Egypt - Commanded Ottoman troops in Egypt, 1805: appointed governor of Egyptian province - Local government removed, mamluks, the local elite, removed - A movement of reform starts as a result - Europeanise the military - Introduces heavy industry, European organizational structures in education - Increase in state control in lands and revenues - Industrialization favoured greater military might, Egypt usually detached the ottoman empire; - The Tanizmat - Sultan had right to abolish parliament, sultan had sign cant power - Reforms in all areas of government - Transfer of power away from religious scholars 19/01/2012 Intellectual trends and rise in ideologies - Hamid, stressing the Islamic institutions: pan-Islamism - Young Turks revolution in 1908: ottomans living abroad, discontent civil servants, students, disaffected army officers: want the restoration of the constitution - 1908: constitution and parliament re-imposed, sultan disposed in 1909 - Ottoman state moved away from pam-Islamism, towards Turkism - Period of Tanizmat also characterized by rise of ideologies - Ottomanism: based on the tanzimat, create one identity to unite the different elements of the empire - Doctrine of equality became official policy in the ottoman empire, useful to try and prevent provinces such as Egypt from breaking away Pan-Islamism - A state supported ideology, meant to protect the empire, political entity based on Islamic law (sharia), the head would be the caliph - Promoted by the sultan between 1876-1908 - Also incorporated questions regarding Islam and integration with modern world - Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1839-1897) from Iran, tried to unite the Shia and Sunni - Community of believers according to him needed to unite, and one needed to act to reach this aim - From Al-Afghani, the wrong interpretation of Islam was the issue, - 19 century, nationalism and pan-Islamism were not opposed, this is a trend, no large organizations, just local organizations - Sultan promoted this ideal - One to unite the Muslims, obtain peace, etc. Turkism - Turkish cultural - The search for a national identity Arabism Islamic Reformism - Born of the perception that Islamic world behind times - Main figure: Muhammad abduh, Al Azhar (Islamic university in Egypt) - Called for a need for an inner revival, problem was due to the interpretation of Islam, to make it compatible for survival, must to compatible with reason, progress - Islam could be the basis of a modern society - Muhammad Rashid Rida, wants the restoration of an Arabic caliphate, openly questioned the legitimacy of the Turkish caliph - Opposed to idea of pan-Islamism, unified system of law, promotes a unified Islamic education throughout the Islamic world - 1898: editor of a magazine, promotion of his ideas… “necessary to spread Arabic language instead of Turkish, Arabic language is a language of religion, one way of spreading the religion” - Revolution of the young Turks leads to changes in some provinces, such as in Syria and Baghdad - They push for a strong centralized government, reforms eliminated Arabic elements from the ottoman language - Notable families in positions of power undermined, gov’t became increasingly Turkish - Young Turks ban all Arabic associations WWI - The Belfour accords, the Sykes-picot agreement - 1913: committee of union and progress (CUP) in power (Enver, Talat and Jamal Pasha) - A group of military students, committee gained full control of government, consolidated their rule, and governed as a military dictatorship - Pushed for a strong centralizing government, modernization of the army, secularization - Committed to the question of modernization of the empire, with the intent to save the empire - Ottoman entrance into WWI an accident? - Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco were all under French domination, modern day Libya was under French/Italian domination, Egypt was under British control - Britain objective to defend the route to British India, as well as a defence of the oil fields of Iran - Ottoman territory were promised to Russia if France and Britain were able to obtain their land interests in other parts under the Constantinople Agreement - McMahon/Hussein correspondence, exchange of 10 letters between July 1915 and March 1916 - Purpose of which is to incite uprisings in ottoman territory near the Arabian pan handle Zionism - The role of the Balfour Declaration within the growth of Zionism - Zionism reaffirmed the true home of Jews in Jerusalem, the idea to return to the home of Jews - Traditional religious Zionism, bound to the idea of Jews as a nation, a firm conviction that Jews will eventually create their own state - Jews needed to be passive before god - Classical Zionist conceptions provided little consideration for the ownership of Palestine - Europe: Jews subject to discrimination, political inequality, humiliation etc. - The ideals of the French revolution produced legislation that reduced many limitations in Jewish life, produced movement that granted Jews full citizenship, Ottomans also offered citizenship to Jews in their regions - Entry of Jews into civil society as individuals, varying - Some promoted the ideal of Jewish assimilation - Others reacted negatively to this idea - Theodor Herzl - Modern political Zionism advocated for a non-secular state, although also open to have an idea to have a Jewish state in another part of the world, in Uganda and Argentina The Balfour Declaration… British motives - Strategic location of Palestine, and the legitimization of Britain’s position in Palestine - A way of persuasion for Russian Jews to support Russia’s war effort? - The draw the US on the side of the allies (with Jewish influence in US) - Sympathy for Zionism? Perhaps Jewish guilt clause? - Some argue that Zionists have very little to do with the Balfour declaration, perhaps the British had their own interest in Palestine The Zionist conference - Aim for the creation of a home for the Jewish people in Palestine, under law. - Jewish immigration to Palestine and the acquisition of land on which to settle these new immigrants - The acquisition of land would be supported by international powers, allowing the Jews to develop their homeland Issues - One land, two states???? - One dude argues that during the peace conference, both the Zionists and the Palestinians were used by Britain Syria - Amir Faysal - British forces leave Syria in Nov 1919, claiming no result from the Paris Peace Conference - Syria declared itself independent, with Faysal as king - Syria contained components of modern day Lebanon, Israel/Palestine, and Transjordan - But French forces oust Faysal in July 24 1920 02/02/2012 Test review - Divided into three parts - Short questions Some Examples: Why is WWI considered one of the most important political events in modern Middle Eastern history? In which ways Great Britain and France have divided up the territories of the Ottoman Empire? Define ‘Kemalism’ or the Kemalist principles - Multiple choice questions. - Terms to define: some examples, Orientalism, Tanizmat, Arabism… one line, maximum two line answers Atatürk - Some opposition to his regime, although he managed to silence all opposition in 1925, most threatening groups to his rule came from tribal leaders, such as the Kurdish revolt (this revolt was also supported by religious elements) - The Kurdish revolt forced the passing of a law that banned any organizations or publications considered a disturbance to the regime - The silencing of all civil society, media closed down - The emergence of the “Turkish revolution” can you argue this? - Ataturk rejected the past, is Kemalism a break with the past? Iran - Strategic placement, 5-6 million population - Extremely decentralized, comprised of semi-autonomous geographic areas, Muslim majority – divided between Shia and Sunni - The court and the Shah powerless beyond Tehran - European influence in Iran similar to 3hqt - Reza Khan - Becomes highest Egypt in terms of military rank, reformations in military, European military structure etc. - Opposition repressed, trade unions repressed as well Similarities with Ataturk - Reforms in secularism, anti-tribalism - He wanted modern Iran free of clerical influence, ethnical differences, European style education - Western, active women outside of the home - A one state, one culture ideal, emphasized the pre-Islamic past of Iran - A dramatic increase in children in education institutions, institutions increased, University of Tehran created - Avoided foreign debt by increasing indirect taxes, favoured industrialization - The women’s awakening project - Both rulers associated modernization with association, didn’t like tribal anarchists, etc. the regular stuff… Today’s stuff is on the test!!! =( Saudi Arabia - Formation over a period of 30 years - 3 periods, before WWI, during, after WWI - Najd, Hijaz = two territories in SA, that will be analyzed - Unclear borders, lack of elaborate institutions, territories linked with tribal zones - Wahhabism is the religious ideology of the Saudi state, a radical form of sunnism, a tyrannical form of Islam, a return to the original form of Islam - 1902, Ibn Sa’ud, ruler of Najd, conquers Riyadh - WWI, British policy a determining factor in the SA kingdom, two policies, one towards Sharif Hussein - No one recognized Hussein’s rule of SA except in the Hijaz, his power base - Sa’ud was the most significant tribal leader in 1916, extension of his territory, signs treaty - British promises Sa’ud independence, Sa’ud promises to not go with the Ottomans, nor have any sort of relationships with any other nations during WWI - This treaty is not very important, because the British favours Hussein over Sa’ud, due to Hussein’s religious legitimacy - At end of WWI, 5 independent states in Arabia, following years defined by GB policy, and power struggle between the states - Sa’ud has successive victories, expanding his territory, takes over Hussein’s territory - No support from the powers of the area Oil - The discovery of oil in 1933 - Aramco obtains concessions from SA to explore Oil, extraction for 60 years from SA - Horrible deal for Saudi Arabia - The beginning of a close relationship between the US and SA Egypt - 1798 invasion of Egypt by Napoleon significant, Muhammad Ali sent by ottomans to get rid of the foreigners, he started reforms, considered as the founder of modern Egypt, founded a dynasty - Egypt was an autonomous province of the Ottomans, British military occupation of Egypt, no treaties, definitions of Egypt’s status - 1914, Britain declares Egypt a protectorate, prevent Ottoman use of the province - Egypt endures the status of a battlefield, inflation, and devastation - An emergence of a new class of Egyptians, wealthy administrators etc. - At the end of WWI, Egyptian politicians, administrators, believed Egypt would be granted independence - 1918, delegation of Egyptians founds the Wafd, in order to get self-determination for Egypt - Saad Zaghlul a founder of Wafd, British arrest and deport him, strikes, protests broke out as a response to this, eventually led to the nationwide upheaval, the 1919 revolution - Took the British 2 months to put down the revolution - British accepts Wafd delegation to Paris Peace conference, and accepts them a political force - UK grants Egypt conditional independence, Wafd wanted full independence, declaration abolishes the British protectorate - British asserts their rights to control the Suez canal, and protect the minorities in Egypt - Defense, foreign affairs, capitulation system and Sudan still under British control - A constitution was proclaimed, a parliamentary system was put in place with Egyptian sultan… - Two chambers, one elected, one partially elected, the king had extensive powers… appointing the executive, dismissing parliament, royal assent, powers to appoint - Regardless, emergence of western style party system - The king dismissed gov’t whenever he didn’t like them, fairly not functional democracy - British continued to interfere with Egyptian affairs… the Wafd or any other parties did not adopt principles of compromise - A constant struggle between the three centres of power: the king, the politicians, Great Britain - King also recruited politicians for the palace, kick people out, have elections at will… - 1924, British dismissed the gov’t, lifespan for governments short, series of elections would follow - Wafd made up of predominantly upper class, educated Egyptians, although they had support from lower classes, main goal for the party was independence - Individuals would hold different posts, as the governments rose and fall continuously - 1926, British agree to renegotiate 1922 declaration, agreement was signed by the Wafd led government - 1936 treaty, fourth attempt for Egyptian independence - Egypt admitted into the League of Nations, Britain agrees to some demands… - Suez canal gained rights to Egypt for 20 years, in times of war, Britain would have rights to all Egyptian facilities - Britain right to defend Egypt in case of attack, 20 year defensive military alliance, Egyptian army would be ready for defense after 20 years, but Egypt had to utilize British equipment and advisors - No changes to Sudan, British promise to abolish capitulation - Not much changes, except for the time frame of 20 years - Egyptians are now allowed to engage in negotiations with other nations - Britain used Egyptian facilities during WWII, Egypt did not declare war, but it was a battlefield, despite remaining neutral - In 1942, King refused a British candidate for prime minister, forced the king to accept the British selection for prime minister, the Feb 4 incident th - The Egyptian army, a large role in the 19 century, Britain considered a large Egyptian army dangerous, most of the army for a long time in the Sudan - 1936, treaty provided a British military mission to train t
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