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HIST 1707 Seminar 8.docx

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Sonya Lipsett- Rivera

HIST 1707 Seminar 8 November 2 , 2012 Exploration and conquest Precedents  Romans in Atlantic Ocean  Vikings (small colonies) -they left  Columbus’ back and forth of boats to settle  Africans (left and didn’t come back)  Vivaldi brothers used Galy’s - got about off the coast of Africa then died Technology  Compass (where you are going)  Astrolabe (where you are) Navigation techniques  Dead- reckoning  Astronomical charts  Europeans connections helped them explore Mapping  Portolan charts (oldest are from 1270)  Introduced same time as the compass  Portolan (accurate of the coastline) -navigators used these to calculate distances Ship Design  The Cog (squat boat) -heavy seas and large cargo  Only good if you knew where you were going  Not good for exploring  Bad square sails  The Caravel (manoeuvrable boat)  evolved to Nao (Carrack boat) Iberian Peninsula/ muslim conquest  new society Reconquest  visigothic kingdoms  718 CE-first Christian victory  Multiple kingdoms  Not one long war (lasts 700 years)  Way to gain riches and land and nobility  War a way of life  Prisoners/slavery ( non-christians) -Ransoms  Race (Spain says you must be catholic to live there)  Militant Christianity  Social advancement through conquest of other people Emerging Identities  1179 Portugal recognized as state by Pope th  13 century Kingdoms of Asturias, Castille etc.. Portugal th  8 century, recover city of Porticuale (Oporto)  Portugal (the old Lusitania) takes shape  First nation state Maritime Portugal  Natural orientation  Trade with England  Commence with ports Princes Henry the Navigator  Invasion of Moroccan city of Ceuta in 1415  Caravans (coming from the South) -Gold, Ivory, Pepper, slaves, Salt Motivations  Continuation of reconquest  Impose Christianity  Prester John (Christian King) -Myth -However Christian kingdom in Ethiopa  Sagres Portugal and Africa  Cape Bojador -scary spike of land -Mist (fears of the unknown) -They believed the world was round  Atlantic Islands -(Maderas,Canaries, Cape Verde, Azores) The Making of Spain  Isabela of Castile and Ferdinand  Papale dispensations  Political marriage  Conquered Granada 1492 Who was Columbus?  Few reliable documents  Nationality?  His life before Spain  Connections with Genoa Flat earth?  Martin Behaim’s globe The Catholic Kings  Capitulations of Toledo  Financing of Voyage  Martin Pinzon  What did he expect to find?  Form letters, trinkets Preparations for the voyage  Crew  Pin
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