HIS 2342 - Jan 09
What is it about the end of the 19th century that cause problems... Broad trends, Misery (1895) by
Kollwitz (Graphic on PPT).
• The population explosion at the end of the 19th century. In Eastern and Central Europe we
see an explosion whereas Western and Northern Europe we do not see a change. Western
Europe the explanation for the stagnation is because there are better health care options =
lower infantile death rates. There's also more birth control being used. it's no longer
adventageous to have big families. It's actually better to have small educated families.
• In Eastern and Southern Europe where agriculture is strong having a lot of kids is still
• This means that we have industrial countries in the West and North with stag pop.
• We have Eastern and Southern countries with exploding countries.
• We have movement from rural to urban centers migration. It's important to note some are
immigrating to NA, but some are moving within the continent to leave oppresion, political,
economic reasons etc... They're moving from developing countries to industrialized
countries. People in indus. go from rural to urban.
• We also have economic factors:
o Depression used to describe the global economy. This is a time period where
prices fall where supply overtakes demand.
o In Europe it's difficult to talk about a European situation. UK tends to suffer more
then some of its neighbours because the economic succes of the UK was greater then
other countries prior to the crisis.
o It's important to see that we see an increasing polarization between the
industrialized West and North vs the South and East.
o The South and East are relegated to producing raw materials for West and
o The Industrial North is comprised of :
Engineering breakthrough = leads to greater production. Procudes
innovations such as automobile and machinery for factories.
Steel = Important for bigger and better ships. Greater arms and more
Chemicals =Agriculture to Film Industries.
• These advances in the West are important for social reasons. These shifts are important
because by the end of the 19th century it becomes possible to see a european working class.
o The working class orbits. They're no longer people coming from the rural to urban
but individuals whom are born themselves in the city. product of the city o Biggest change in the lives of individuals is the process of mechanization.
Machine replaces things done by hand. Some of these skills whom workers had learned
to do are becoming irrelevent.
o This means the working class becomes homogenous because nobody has
specialized skills to work in a factory. We no longer have a destinction between skilled
and unskilled workers. None of these individual have an advantage on others.
o Also, artisans can no longer compete with the new ways of production. The flood
of standardized goods are greater then the artisans crafts. IE. they've been replaced.
o While some workers and families failed to adjust, other workers enjoyed new
oppertunities whom could've been impossible to achieve. These are the individuals
known as the "White Collar Working Class".
o The industrial economy makes a place for these White Collar's.
o On the other end of the spectrum we have the wealthy individuals whom are
undergoing shifts as well.
o The richest europeans are no longer the land owning elites. Rather we saw some
banking and financial investors.
o The Nobility responded to this threat by trying they themselves to participate and
generate more wealth. Others tried to marry their children into these banking families.
What's important to undertsand is there's a shift between the old social elites and the
new money members of the bourgeoisie.
o The middle class is beginning to learn the social skills of the higher class in
o We see a shift between "Old money and new money".
• An important shift beyond the social movements are the Nation-States themselves.
• In the Mid-19th century Nations were struggling to become States. Nations and States do
not always coincide. By the end of the 19th century States found it necessary to work and
integrate to work with all the nations of the State.
• European States are trying to figure out project to go and convince the citizens that they
are loyal to the State.
• We see different models from Political Leaders and Philosophical individuals.
• European leaders try to emphasise longevity.Any member from a State are a part of this
State. When States and Nation coincide it's easier to implement a language or culture.
• For most europeans this is a very difficult thing to achieve.
• What are the challenges to try and achieve this?
o Socialism : the socialist movement identifies an international work class
regardless of their countries or ethnic.
o Religion o Feministe movement : challenges the way Nation-States are set-up.
o Language barriers
o Internal conflicts
o Economic alliances
o Ethnic diversity.
o It holds that the State is the instrument of the bourgeoisie. Differences in socialiste
parties whom think they should or should not participate in State politics.
o The fears of socialism pushed liberals to rethink their opposition to the Catholic
Church. The Church becomes somewhat less treatning because of the socialist
o The Church itself is divided, the christian democrat movement starts to emerge
and argues that the "totalitarian" movement needs to be re-visited. Other members
wanted to maintain a status quo. In Eastern and Central Europe where they held
political roles we saw a movement of non-traditional church experiences. The Church
is undergoing diverse shifts.
• Because the church and the socialist movement provides challenges to the Nation-States
• The State is challenged by these minority groups because it resists all conflicts because its
preparing itself for a revolte. The State is ready for constant revolts.
• Struggles to find some minority demands but rejecting most of them. These challenges
come in Continental Europe and in Colonial Empires.
• Nationaliste challenges to the States. Catalonia in Spain for example.
• In Eastern Europe, many groups consider themselves nations