HIS 2342 – Wednesday January 16 2013
• Make an argument of some aspects of WWI that “I” find interesting.
• Women’s lives, Technological Innovations, Post-War political activities
• Use a source in the paper. Any type of cultural production. (Poems, Music, Medicine
• Use this source as if it’s a primary source. Not a source analysis of the primary source.
The objective is not to write a paper on the source. Rather, use this piece as a support of
the argument trying to make. How the war changed etc…
• Required to use at least three secondary sources. Try not to use to many sources.
• 4-5 pages does not include the bibliography.
End of WWI
- How the political settlement shaped the 1920’s.
- By the end of the wear (1917) before the US entered the War Germany and Austria we’re
succeeding in suppressing theAlly forces.
- In 1917 Britain and it’s forces were assuming a disproportionate share of the fighting
because of the retreat from Russia.
- There was great dissent by the French soldiers whom were fighting battles that were
impossible to win.
- French soldiers were not only tired of the war but also rather angry because they saw no
use to it.
- Letter from a French soldier
o Peace and the right to military leaves. French soldiers were denied the leaves they
had been promised.
o No more butchery, they wish to have liberty. Response to the peers fighting.
o The food is shameful. The food was inadequate.
o No more injustice.
o No more blacks in Paris mistreating their wives. In this demand we see the
discomfort and racism of using colonial forces.
o They need peace to feed their wives and children. The way that gender roles were
challenged by WWI. These father’s and husbands felt they couldn’t fulfill their
o They demand Peace, Peace and an End to the War.
- It’s difficult to find out how many French soldiers mutinied during WWI. It’s not clear
how many soldiers were punished. There were executions but in many cases the army
officers though they shouldn’t use too much violence because they knew civilians were
aware of these movements.
- Most of the time they punished soldiers symbolically. Many of these soldiers were
convinced to go to the front because if they wouldn’t France would loose the war.
- While the soldiers and the mutinies could be reduced civilians began to go on strike.
Women working in factories went on strike to fight back against the low wages they were
- The government ended up meeting most of these striking workers demands for higher
wages. The consequences of the war were simply too great to have problems at home. - Once this burst of anger and resentment was placed within the Allies during the summer
of 1917 the Allies were able to hold against the German expansion by the end of the year.
Once the US Forces came in they were able to push the German back.
- By 1918 the tide began to turn, in that summer it was German forces whom started to
mutiny against their commanding officers. German soldiers began to understand that they
were loosing battles. These soldiers whom had low morale were told to continue moving
westwards even though they were losing.
- Hoping to avoid an invasion of Germany itself, German military leaders requested an
- We have the demand for an Armistice that ends up being signed on November 11 1918. th
- They begin to think not only of a post-war Europe but also of a post-war World.
- Not only was Europe reeling of the deaths from the war (Civilian and Soldier casualties)
it’s also important to think of the Russian revolution. Furthermore, the influenza crisis of
1919 and 1920 is moving across the world.
- The process of making peace was made difficult by these external circumstances. It was
also difficult because it was the War to end all Wars.
- The pressure on State leaders was even higher then in other circumstances because this
war should finally create peace in the world.
- Many historians suggest that this pressure was so grave that it was a factor that lead to the
imperfect peace which possibly paved the way for future conflicts.
- Wilson’s fourteen points
1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international
understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view.
2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war,
except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of
3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of
trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its
4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point
consistent with domestic safety.
5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict
observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the
populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title
is to be determined.
6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will
secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an
unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political
development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations
under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that
she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months
to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished
from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy.
7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the
sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as
this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and
determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole
structure and validity of international law is forever impaired. 8. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to
France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world
for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the
interest of all.
9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of
10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and
assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development.
11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded
free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another
determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and
international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the
several Balkan states should be entered into.
12. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the
other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life
and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be
permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international
13. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by
indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose
political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international
14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for t