Class Notes (810,564)
Canada (494,149)
History (911)
HIS2342 (36)


6 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Ottawa
Naomi Davidson

th HIS 2342 – Wednesday January 16 2013 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- WWI PAPER: • Make an argument of some aspects of WWI that “I” find interesting. • Women’s lives, Technological Innovations, Post-War political activities • Use a source in the paper. Any type of cultural production. (Poems, Music, Medicine etc…). • Use this source as if it’s a primary source. Not a source analysis of the primary source. The objective is not to write a paper on the source. Rather, use this piece as a support of the argument trying to make. How the war changed etc… • Required to use at least three secondary sources. Try not to use to many sources. • 4-5 pages does not include the bibliography. End of WWI - How the political settlement shaped the 1920’s. - By the end of the wear (1917) before the US entered the War Germany and Austria we’re succeeding in suppressing theAlly forces. - In 1917 Britain and it’s forces were assuming a disproportionate share of the fighting because of the retreat from Russia. - There was great dissent by the French soldiers whom were fighting battles that were impossible to win. - French soldiers were not only tired of the war but also rather angry because they saw no use to it. - Letter from a French soldier o Peace and the right to military leaves. French soldiers were denied the leaves they had been promised. o No more butchery, they wish to have liberty. Response to the peers fighting. o The food is shameful. The food was inadequate. o No more injustice. o No more blacks in Paris mistreating their wives. In this demand we see the discomfort and racism of using colonial forces. o They need peace to feed their wives and children. The way that gender roles were challenged by WWI. These father’s and husbands felt they couldn’t fulfill their duties. o They demand Peace, Peace and an End to the War. - It’s difficult to find out how many French soldiers mutinied during WWI. It’s not clear how many soldiers were punished. There were executions but in many cases the army officers though they shouldn’t use too much violence because they knew civilians were aware of these movements. - Most of the time they punished soldiers symbolically. Many of these soldiers were convinced to go to the front because if they wouldn’t France would loose the war. - While the soldiers and the mutinies could be reduced civilians began to go on strike. Women working in factories went on strike to fight back against the low wages they were receiving. - The government ended up meeting most of these striking workers demands for higher wages. The consequences of the war were simply too great to have problems at home. - Once this burst of anger and resentment was placed within the Allies during the summer of 1917 the Allies were able to hold against the German expansion by the end of the year. Once the US Forces came in they were able to push the German back. - By 1918 the tide began to turn, in that summer it was German forces whom started to mutiny against their commanding officers. German soldiers began to understand that they were loosing battles. These soldiers whom had low morale were told to continue moving westwards even though they were losing. - Hoping to avoid an invasion of Germany itself, German military leaders requested an Armistice. - We have the demand for an Armistice that ends up being signed on November 11 1918. th - They begin to think not only of a post-war Europe but also of a post-war World. - Not only was Europe reeling of the deaths from the war (Civilian and Soldier casualties) it’s also important to think of the Russian revolution. Furthermore, the influenza crisis of 1919 and 1920 is moving across the world. - The process of making peace was made difficult by these external circumstances. It was also difficult because it was the War to end all Wars. - The pressure on State leaders was even higher then in other circumstances because this war should finally create peace in the world. - Many historians suggest that this pressure was so grave that it was a factor that lead to the imperfect peace which possibly paved the way for future conflicts. - Wilson’s fourteen points 1. Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at, after which there shall be no private international understandings of any kind but diplomacy shall proceed always frankly and in the public view. 2. Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters, alike in peace and in war, except as the seas may be closed in whole or in part by international action for the enforcement of international covenants. 3. The removal, so far as possible, of all economic barriers and the establishment of equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance. 4. Adequate guarantees given and taken that national armaments will be reduced to the lowest point consistent with domestic safety. 5. A free, open-minded, and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims, based upon a strict observance of the principle that in determining all such questions of sovereignty the interests of the populations concerned must have equal weight with the equitable claims of the government whose title is to be determined. 6. The evacuation of all Russian territory and such a settlement of all questions affecting Russia as will secure the best and freest cooperation of the other nations of the world in obtaining for her an unhampered and unembarrassed opportunity for the independent determination of her own political development and national policy and assure her of a sincere welcome into the society of free nations under institutions of her own choosing; and, more than a welcome, assistance also of every kind that she may need and may herself desire. The treatment accorded Russia by her sister nations in the months to come will be the acid test of their good will, of their comprehension of her needs as distinguished from their own interests, and of their intelligent and unselfish sympathy. 7. Belgium, the whole world will agree, must be evacuated and restored, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in common with all other free nations. No other single act will serve as this will serve to restore confidence among the nations in the laws which they have themselves set and determined for the government of their relations with one another. Without this healing act the whole structure and validity of international law is forever impaired. 8. All French territory should be freed and the invaded portions restored, and the wrong done to France by Prussia in 1871 in the matter of Alsace-Lorraine, which has unsettled the peace of the world for nearly fifty years, should be righted, in order that peace may once more be made secure in the interest of all. 9. A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along clearly recognizable lines of nationality. 10. The peoples of Austria-Hungary, whose place among the nations we wish to see safeguarded and assured, should be accorded the freest opportunity to autonomous development. 11. Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories restored; Serbia accorded free and secure access to the sea; and the relations of the several Balkan states to one another determined by friendly counsel along historically established lines of allegiance and nationality; and international guarantees of the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of the several Balkan states should be entered into. 12. The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life and an absolutely unmolested opportunity of autonomous development, and the Dardanelles should be permanently opened as a free passage to the ships and commerce of all nations under international guarantees. 13. An independent Polish state should be erected which should include the territories inhabited by indisputably Polish populations, which should be assured a free and secure access to the sea, and whose political and economic independence and territorial integrity should be guaranteed by international covenant. 14. A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenants for t
More Less

Related notes for HIS2342

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.