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Lecture

02-25-2013.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS2342
Professor
Naomi Davidson
Semester
Winter

Description
- FDR and Churchill issue theAtlantic Charter in 1941. - This was a set of principles that would dictate future peace terms. The highlight included the “freedom of the seas”. Equal access to economic opportunity, end to aggression and the restoration of rights to conquer people. - There’s also formal conference in 1943, the next important summit involves Churchill, Stalin and FDR.At this meeting in Teran they decide to open up the second front. - The summit of Yalta takes place in 1945 where the big three lay out the play of their assault on Germany and how they’ll divide Germany once everything is done. - The question that worried these leaders with occupied government was what they would need to demonstrate that they were truly democratic. - Roosevelt believed that the people whom had been occupied during the war would choose democracy on their own. - Churchill though it would be necessary for theAllies to use measures and strategies to encourage anti-German and anti-Totalitarian sentiments. - Roosevelt didn’t trust Charles de Gaule. Hence, he didn't trust him as a leader but Churchill saw de Gaule as an important leader. - Part of Roosevelt’s concern was that France wouldn’t be lead into democratic principles after the war. - De Gaule did assume power in France but he did create a republic. - What united these two leaders Churchill and Roosevelt was their fear of the Soviet domination of Eastern and South-Eastern Europe. They were worried because the Yalta agreement had pushed the soviet army westward. - Roosevelt and Churchill saw no other choice then to agree to Yalta. - The final big three conferences took place in Postdam. The individuals whom had met during the war weren’t the same. We now had Truman,Adlee and Stalin. This summit took place in a particular circumstance. The soviet troops had pushed the German forces out of Germany. And Stalin had left soviet troops in Germany and all of the feared zones. - In Poland Stalin had set-up a communist government. In spite of this, the big three agreed on the following principles. o Occupation and separation of Germany among theAllies. o Prosecution of Nazi War criminals o German annexation revert to their original countries o German eastern border moved westward reducing to by 25% o German population outside the eastern border are expelled o Germany must pay war reparations to the USSR o Germany’s standard of living must not exceed European average o Industries of Factories in Germany that creates military products must be destroyed, dismantled or controlled by theAllies. o German economy to revert to the free market and to be centered on agriculture and light industry rather than heavy industry
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