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HIS2342 (36)
Lecture

03-04-2013.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS2342
Professor
Naomi Davidson
Semester
Winter

Description
- What were the methods used in Europe after WWII. Ideas and fears over social welfare. - Concerns over how to best protect the social welfare of European citizens lead to questions as to how to fix and have Europe recover from the War. - Without strong social welfare problems European economies wouldn’t have been able to reconstruct themselves. - Some countries chose to emphasis public housing as the major contribution that would help Europe. - In Southern Europe this was very neglected.Another big concern was health care, how to provide health care to as many citizens as possible. - In Britain this was done via taxes and individual contributions of social welfare. - We had disagreements as to how to implement these changes but individuals agreed these programs needed to be done. - The Marshall Plan, which under-wrote this social welfare, was a self-interested program from the USA. - In providing these funds the US tried to rebuild Western Europe in its own image. - TheAmerican belief was that in providing these services it would help Europe rebuild them. - It was established in 1947, this Marshall Plan was offered to Western Europe along with the USSR but the later refused funding. - This was a 4-Year Program, in these years around 14 Billion US$ helped restore Europe. - By the time the four years was over the economy of all Participants State’s saw their economies grow above and beyond pre-war levels. - One of the biggest problems was that the Marshall Plan would only be feasible if the leaders divided themselves the program how it would be distributed (the money). - This program that began with the Marshall Plan started with the Organization for European Organization. - However, there wasn’t unanimity as too how these funds should be used and how they should be distributed. Each European Country had it’s own ideas as to how the money should be spent. - France’s Big Concern was that Germany shouldn’t be allowed to grow its economy at the same rate as his other neighbors. - Meanwhile, the Scandinavian’s were concerned what would happen if they tookAmerican money, the reason for this is because of their relationship with the USSR. - TheAmerican’s also needed to work things out via their own administration. o Austrian o Belgium o Danmark o West Germany o G-B o Greece o Iceland o Ireland o Italy o Luxembourg o Netherlands o Norway o Sweden o Switzerland o Poland o Romania o Czech Republic - The Marshall Plan was the only way to buy imported goods for numerous countries. - Europe usedAmerican Aid to help buy Food and Fuel. - Afterwards, Europeans were able to buy goods and vehicles to help rebuilding the country. - From 1948-1952 Europeans saw the fastest grow in modern European history. - Industrial production increased by 35% in agricultural production, this wildly surpasses pre-war levels. - The levels of starvations and poor standards of living are completely overhauled with these changes. - Not all historians lay all of this growth to the Marshall Plan, but even those whom think it was exaggerated agree it created a played an important role in the recovery of Europe. Most importantly, the funds available meant that European leaders didn't have to use austerity measures into place and were able to give some social welfare programs. - European leaders avoided the unrest that followed WWI because of this stimulus. - One of the consequences of the Marshall Plan resulted in another phenomenon: the export of American consumerism. TheAmericanization of Europe. - Many European cultural critics denounced the wayAmerican products started to flood the European markets. - One example of this is Coca-Cola that didn’t exist pre-war. - European economic reconstruction saw a homogenization of life-style in the rise of consumerism. - The belief was that this was erasing the European identity. - The belief was that is Europeans became likeAmerican’s they would avoid future war conflicts and they would also stay safely away from communism. - The middle and lower class became eager to consume theseAmerican goods. - German’s seemed more interested inAmerican Goods and Services then theAlly forces. - One thing that’s important to note is that the goods and products areAmerican products but they’re engineered for a European Market. - Germany was the country where the cold war context in the
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