- We can’t understand the Cold War history without looking at colonization. What this
means understands the historical agency of African, Asian, Latin American and Middle
Eastern Countries in the Cold War.
- They’re making their own course instead of being the object of a US or USSR history.
- It’s important to pay attention to local factors whether they are African, Asian etc… Into
their concerns for independence which may or may not be included into a larger cold war
- We can’t look at decolonization as a game to be played by Soviets but a struggle in which
colonized people are the most active participants. He imposes a new reading of the cold
war. Move beyond the Capitalism and Communism to look at local factors in
decolonization struggles whom themselves have no investment in cold war politics.
- The Post-War Decolonization is the 20 century break-up of empires.
- Political decolonisation that involved political negotiations to end colonial relationships.
On the first hand we have a political process is created to put an end to a relationship.
This doesn’t mean these cases are free of violence.
- The other major path of decolonisation is of armed struggle.Awar for national liberation.
- We will discuss these two trends with the decolonization that happened with violence.
o South-East Asia where two colonial power Netherlands and France dealt with
Thailand and Indonesia.
o Dutch authority in Indonesia had been compromised during WWII. Japan
occupied these areas. The Dutch authority had already been challenged. After the
Japan surrender Indonesian nationalists were encouraged to articulate greater
claims for independence.
o Sukarno led Indonesian nationalists to proclaim a republic once the Japanese
o It took weeks of this proclamation to expand and reach the other world because of
the end of WWII.
o He took advantage of this critical moment before the Dutch could rally
o The Dutch accused the new Republic under Sukarno’s leadership of having
cooperated with the Japanese. He wouldn’t be able to plan all of this without the
o Over the next 5 years they eventually conceded Indonesian Independence even
though they (Holland) received money from the US to fight back.
o They were unable to assure a strong army victory. The Cold War Context in which
this was taking place meant that in the int. arena Holland was a lonely voice.
o The USSR et al. Were supporting Indonesian Independence. Every time we had
discussions of what was happening the Eastern Bloc supported Sukarno. The only
other nation supporting the Dutch was France.
o Indochina’s independence was similar to Indonesia. Ho Chi Ming used the same
tactic as Sukarno when the French forces left during the War.
o His declaration of independence for Vietnam borrowed from the US charter of
independence as well as the French Declaration of the men rights.
o These appeals to the colonizing States are frequent in these types of movements. o Ho Chi Ming was seen as a communist by the US because he had the USSR’s
support. France wanted to return to Indochina because it was almost a factory. All
of the rubber from France came from here. It was also a question of national pride.
The French wanted to return to Indochina not only because of economic interests
but also because of pride given the fact they had been occupied during WWII.
o France had to sign some type of deal. They made a deal with the Cambodian and
Loas leaders along with Ho Chi Ming. In 1946 they came to an agreement that the
French could remain in Indochina in return for Vietnam’s independence.
o This agreement quickly fell apart because there was confusion on the terms of
what it meant and because France had lied about some of the conditions they had
agreed to. By the end of 1946 war had broken out between France and Vietnam.
The French were unprepared for the gorilla warfare.
o The worst defeat had arrived at the Battle of Bien Den Phu.
o The Vietnamese army forced France to surrender and it took only a few more
months before the French were forced to surrender. In 1954 France hands over the
northern part to Ho Chi Ming and to leave the southern part.
o As bad as the war in Indochina was it was a war fought by the professional
o There was fear because of the public’s response. This war as brutal as it was didn’t
have the same impact as in metropolitan France because these weren’t people’s
son’s, brothers etc…
o The conflict istIndochina seemed pale in comparison with another issue. On
November 1 1954 Rebellion broke out inAlgeria.
o Algeria is theoretically part of France. Has the same administrative status as any
other part of France.
o After this initial rebellion breaks out, the French Governor reassured the
population of Algeria (Pieds Noir) that the gov. wouldn’t abandon them and that
they would rema