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Lecture

03-13-2013.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS2342
Professor
Naomi Davidson
Semester
Winter

Description
- We need to understand why the young. Why the young man represented a threat to the social order. Before we explore the events, trends and movements of 1968 we need to understand the political and social shifts. - Decline and fall of the world population of Western Europe that resulted in an upward and mobile rural population. - We have people moving away from the countryside into the cities. They become more educated then there parents and their elders. New occupations require secondary and tertiary education in ways that weren’t necessary in earlier years. - Before WWII, if we combine the UK and France the number of University students was less then 1/10 1%. - After WWII, we had as much as 20% of the population that was going to university. We have a massive increase in the accessibility to post-secondary education. - Many historians say that in Post-War Europe this new group of young people created a new body of citizens. The young university students came into existence in the 1950’s in Europe and elsewhere and this new social category whom would play an important role in 1968. - Students matter even if they’re not the highest numerical group because they’re the most visible challenge to the status of the status quo. This movement gave strength and credibility to other movements. - We have this new generation of university students. Why did so many turns to radicalization? We had too many people occupying a space in society that wasn’t clearly defined. It wasn’t clear what these young people were supposed to do in society. Their identity was compounded by real concerns. - Students were very concerned that if the access to university would be a real access or if it would simply be a paper diploma because the number of students were growing by 5-6 times. - Some people though the universities needed to change themselves because there were so many more students. These material concerns about the way universities work were tied into what being a student was? Before the war being a student was an exceptional experience. Now that it became accessible to everyone what did it mean? - Another new group occupying a new social space were women. They began to work in far greater numbers and also were able to access university at the same or a superior pace then men. - The new feminist movements of the 1960’s depended on the entry of women into the work force. - These women demanded equal pay, social rights and political rights. - Feminism was an important aspect of the 1950-1960’s turbulence. - One of the important changes is that the traditional family model or family society began to take on a dthferent character after WWII. - In the late 19 century the bourgeois would workthnd in the public sphere. Women of the upper classes might’ve worked but in the 19 century the woman stays at home and raises children. This model no longer worked in the 1960’s. Divorce became more prevalent of new laws whom enabled divorce. For the first time people began living alone. Not a very high number but compared to previous generations we had more and more people whom would live on their owns. - The coupled families with children began to become a minority rather then the majority idea. - This corresponds to a general liberalization with regards to sex roles. This helped gays and lesbians with decriminalizing these aspirations. - Feminists and students attack these ideas of traditional gender roles. She contextualises men and women’s attitudes. (Reading). - A lot of anxiety started to create because a lot of individuals in the 1960-1970 rejected the idea of adolescence. They didn’t want to stay as eternal students in a pre-arranged plan made by their parents. - They also didn’t want to be “adults” this is where the slogan “Never trust above 30”. What was novel about this conception in the 1960’s was that it existed. This was a new social category an individual stuck between adolescence and adult-hood. - Young people became social actors. Some of them see this as a boom, a new market and new products. Parents and Teachers are less excited about this social group whom assumes an authority younger generations didn’t have earlier on. - Social scientists begin to talk of young adults as preparation for adulthood but not childhood either. In the late 1960’s is when a culture of celebrating youth takes on its own. We start to see advertising aimed at not only the young but also everyone. These changes do not change into political change. The elder individuals hold most political leadership. And they’re usually men. - What started happening however was bringing in young workers and appealing to them. - One of the identities was the internationalism. The generic figure of the young person wanted to travel abroad, Europeans started to listen to British and American music. These international interests defined the clothing as well. They tend to support the clothing style of their nation. Dressing as a member of the working class. - Individuals cannot underestimate the divide between this youth and their parents. It's important to view this to understand 1968. The young generation has radically different ideas of life based on their learning and expectations. - Parents came of age during the 1930’s. These are children whom lived during the depression in WWII. These parents push security; freedom and access to social welfare are the most important elements. - Their children have had a different life. They’re born after WWII; they’re born in a post- war boom. The security of a job seems like a prison, they have no reason to think that they shouldn’t be able to travel or leave the job they dislike. They have no reason to stay and do the same job as their parents. They come of age in a massive age of unemployment. They can explain that security isn’t the most important in life. - What 1968 means in different context means is quite different? It’s specifically targeted towards a revolution. The goal of this rev
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