- Germany doesn’t represent the same threat as in previous decades when they enter in an
economic partnership with France in 1951 with the European Coal and Steel Community.
- For a creation of the Steel and Coal Economy and the treaty of Rome which leads to the
European Economic Community.
- From the 6 original countries the EU that is the descendants of the ECSC is made up of
many more countries.
- We see a small beginning in 1951 and the creation of Europe. The issues that the current
union needs to address are far more extensive issues then the one’s from 1951.
- The pace of change has become much more rapid then in the 1950’s and the 1960’s. The
pace has moved up considerably.
- The EU of today plays a much bigger role then the earlier versions. More decisions are
made at the European level then the national level.
- The European gov has a greater importance today then in the past.
- We have situations where national laws and European laws conflict.
- The concern over national sovereignty is of great concern in Europe.
- Largely speaking but not always opposition to EU Membership usually comes from the
far right or left.
- Some of these individuals argue that the EU transfers to much power away from
- Others accept the cost of a shared economic system compared to the freedom of trade, the
freedom of movement. They also appreciate the fact Europe has a presence it probably
wouldn’t have on its own.
- There are others whom welcome the idea of an economic union but fear any political
- Most European countries have decided to join a common European project because as a
joint State they wouldn’t need political or economical problems.
- In the 1960’s they were doing a rebuilding of Europe. Concerns about the USSR’s
- Britain wasn’t interested in this venture because they didn’t want to join with these 6
- They also feared for political struggles to come out of this economic union.
- G-B produced 2/3 of the equivalent of the ECSC. They saw no use to join this union and
the move towards European integration.
- The tangible benefits have intangible benefits. He’s making an argument about the
consequences of this union. He also explains that this union will end the fear and
suspicion that countries have of one another that will lead to other types of cooperation. It
might begin with economic cooperation. The overarching goal is the overriding of
national differences within Europe.
- Some of the arguments that he makes for the future of European Unity.
- We move from he ECSC to the EEC. The EEC is created at a meeting in Italy with the
plan to move forward from the first step to the next. The issues as the meeting in 1955
that were though to be the most hopeful were transportation and atomic energy.
- The costs of energy production and transportation are huge. Like coal and steel these are
important factors in there economies. These two things demand so much in terms of
resources that if they don’t do these things together any individual country will be able to
do it alone. - Both of these new entities the EEC and the EuropeanAtomic Committee come into effect
in 1957. The EEC is comprised of 4 parts the European Commission, Council of
Ministers, the Court of Justice and theAssembly.
- The Commission is the central administrative body of the EEC. It’s a supranational body
whose job is to ensure that the treaty of Rome are respected and administered properly.
- The Commission is also responsible for making policy recommendations.
- The Policy recommendation is specific as well. The members of the commission are not
representatives of member States.
- The Council of Ministers are there to represent European interests. Each member takes
turn presiding that council.
- Because these decisions are based on unanimity then consensus countries often saw other
members outweigh their intentions.
- Some Erdopean’s feared this council for this reason.
- The 3 institution is the ParliamentaryAssembly, re-named European Parliament. The
Assembly has supervisory powers over the commission and the council including control
over the budget. Overall however its powers are limited.
- EEC Law exists alongside to each State’s own justice system. This produced tensions
sometimes between EEC and National Laws.
- In the 1950’s the initial balance of power favoured European Law that would win. This
wouldn’t always be the case. In the 1960’s we had a swing back towards national law.
This is something that fluctuated both ways.
- The most importance thing in the 1950’s was to create a customs union and a custom
market to promote free and equal competi