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University of Ottawa
Naomi Davidson

Great-Britain - Great-Britain in the aftermath of WWII they encouraged workers from the Commonwealth to gone to Britain and aid in the reconstruction effort. The rebuilding of Britain was hard work and it was poorly paid. Many of the British workers chose other jobs if they were able to find other jobs. - The people whom responded to this call were going to do this temporarily, save the money made and return home to buy land, home etc… - For the majority these were single men or men whom would leave their families behind. In almost all the cases in Britain many of these immigrants ended up staying in the UK. - For some people decolonization scared them. They were worried about what it would mean to return to an unstable country. - Even if they supported independence in their home countries they were scared of the economic consequences. Indeed they had the right to stay in UK because the 1948 British NationalityAct enabled all individuals of the Commonwealth to have British Nationality. - The idea behind this policy (1948 British Nationality Act) wasn’t to allow people from India, Kenya etc… to immigrate but rather to allow white British Citizens to become citizens automatically. - By the 1960’s when it became clear these commonwealth immigrants wouldn’t be temporary immigrants but permanent riots emerged throughout the UK. This was because many British were unhappy these immigrants would be staying and on the other side the immigrants were upset that they didn’t have the same level of equality. - While they formally dissalowed the racism of these immigrants MP’s worked together to limit the immigration of individuals into UK. Similar restrictions were placed in France and Germany later (1970’s). In the case of Britain this move came in the 1960’s. The reasons were political rather then economic which was the biggest reason for these laws in Germany and France. - Historians explain that MP’s were trying to avoid coping with a population that was becoming multi-cultural and multi-ethnic. They couldn’t get rid of the people in Britain but they could stop others from coming in. - These restrictions on immigration actually increase the number of immigrants. The reason was that they couldn’t stop UK residents from bringing their families over. France - The policies that ended decolonization in France. Because of the process in Africa gave the citizens of Senegal, Mali etc… Guaranteed them freedom of movement to France with their national ID Cards. - If they chose to come to France they had the same rights as French Citizens. People from former Colonies of South-WestAfrica had the same rights. - This will change afterwards but this was the case at the beginning. - Immigrants from Algeria had a different set of regulations. Algerians that wanted to move to France didn’t have the French Citizenship. They could opt for French Nationality but needed to go through a process to become French citizens. - Tensions began to rise with this labor movement because the largest number of immigrants came from Algeria. Algerians whom immigrated after the war weren’t welcomed with open arms. - The Algerian government formally halted immigration to France in 1973. This was done to display the injustices that were facing manyAlgerians. - This decision from the Algerian Government pushed the French Government to suspend working class immigration in 1974. - This policy actually increased immigration for the same reason as in the UK families brought their families over to France. - Some French officials urged the deportation of all these individuals either with bribes or simply deporting them. - This moment in the 1970’s is difficult not only because of the Algerian War but because of the oil crisis in the Middle East. Hence, we had targeting of Middle Eastern individuals. - The situation in France Parallels that of the UK but the stoppage comes later. - As was the case for the speech done in the UK the French were able to influence hardline policies in the Left and Right against these immigrants. - In France we don’t have a multi-cultural melting pot. In France Public everyone is simply French. Because of the way French Political life is structured the immigration and religious debate take place in a different way. Holland - We have a similar labor market situation, as was the case in France. Manual labor was imported from Morocco and Turkey to cope with the construction of the post-war years. - Holland didn’t have a formal design or plan for construction. - Like in France the Dutch Government tried to encourage immigrants to return back home. - The Dutch Government set up programs in the countries that sent the most migrant countries. Hence the Dutch Government tried to set-up development programs in those local areas and this would keep people from
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