- Great-Britain in the aftermath of WWII they encouraged workers from the
Commonwealth to gone to Britain and aid in the reconstruction effort. The rebuilding of
Britain was hard work and it was poorly paid. Many of the British workers chose other
jobs if they were able to find other jobs.
- The people whom responded to this call were going to do this temporarily, save the
money made and return home to buy land, home etc…
- For the majority these were single men or men whom would leave their families behind.
In almost all the cases in Britain many of these immigrants ended up staying in the UK.
- For some people decolonization scared them. They were worried about what it would
mean to return to an unstable country.
- Even if they supported independence in their home countries they were scared of the
economic consequences. Indeed they had the right to stay in UK because the 1948 British
NationalityAct enabled all individuals of the Commonwealth to have British Nationality.
- The idea behind this policy (1948 British Nationality Act) wasn’t to allow people from
India, Kenya etc… to immigrate but rather to allow white British Citizens to become
- By the 1960’s when it became clear these commonwealth immigrants wouldn’t be
temporary immigrants but permanent riots emerged throughout the UK. This was because
many British were unhappy these immigrants would be staying and on the other side the
immigrants were upset that they didn’t have the same level of equality.
- While they formally dissalowed the racism of these immigrants MP’s worked together to
limit the immigration of individuals into UK. Similar restrictions were placed in France
and Germany later (1970’s). In the case of Britain this move came in the 1960’s. The
reasons were political rather then economic which was the biggest reason for these laws
in Germany and France.
- Historians explain that MP’s were trying to avoid coping with a population that was
becoming multi-cultural and multi-ethnic. They couldn’t get rid of the people in Britain
but they could stop others from coming in.
- These restrictions on immigration actually increase the number of immigrants. The reason
was that they couldn’t stop UK residents from bringing their families over.
- The policies that ended decolonization in France. Because of the process in Africa gave
the citizens of Senegal, Mali etc… Guaranteed them freedom of movement to France with
their national ID Cards.
- If they chose to come to France they had the same rights as French Citizens. People from
former Colonies of South-WestAfrica had the same rights.
- This will change afterwards but this was the case at the beginning.
- Immigrants from Algeria had a different set of regulations. Algerians that wanted to move
to France didn’t have the French Citizenship. They could opt for French Nationality but
needed to go through a process to become French citizens.
- Tensions began to rise with this labor movement because the largest number of
immigrants came from Algeria. Algerians whom immigrated after the war weren’t
welcomed with open arms.
- The Algerian government formally halted immigration to France in 1973. This was done
to display the injustices that were facing manyAlgerians. - This decision from the Algerian Government pushed the French Government to suspend
working class immigration in 1974.
- This policy actually increased immigration for the same reason as in the UK families
brought their families over to France.
- Some French officials urged the deportation of all these individuals either with bribes or
simply deporting them.
- This moment in the 1970’s is difficult not only because of the Algerian War but because
of the oil crisis in the Middle East. Hence, we had targeting of Middle Eastern
- The situation in France Parallels that of the UK but the stoppage comes later.
- As was the case for the speech done in the UK the French were able to influence hardline
policies in the Left and Right against these immigrants.
- In France we don’t have a multi-cultural melting pot. In France Public everyone is simply
French. Because of the way French Political life is structured the immigration and
religious debate take place in a different way.
- We have a similar labor market situation, as was the case in France. Manual labor was
imported from Morocco and Turkey to cope with the construction of the post-war years.
- Holland didn’t have a formal design or plan for construction.
- Like in France the Dutch Government tried to encourage immigrants to return back home.
- The Dutch Government set up programs in the countries that sent the most migrant
countries. Hence the Dutch Government tried to set-up development programs in those
local areas and this would keep people from