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HIS2363 (35)
Lecture

HIS 2363Course 4.pdf

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Department
History
Course
HIS2363
Professor
Christian Champion
Semester
Fall

Description
Course 4 September-11-13 6:00 PM Expansion & Regional Conflict • Canada's position in the British Empire both strengthened and weakened MacDonald'sposition • Trudeau said he was a conservative like John A. MacDonald • MacDonald's success lead a long list of defeated enemies Minority rights • BNA (section 93) protected minority school rights - if they existed prior to Confederation • Dominion had power of reservation & disallowance (section 90) • Catholic and Protestant province (protecting the Protestants in Catholic Quebec and the Catholic in Protestant Ontario) • No delegates representing Cape Breton Island, no Acadians and Quebekers were not interested in French outside of Quebec, no rouges from Quebec, no Natives • There was no consideration at all for the Natives • In Canada's way of thinking groups are a part of our constitution unlike Britain which considers only individuals rights New Brunswick Catholics • Had schools prior to Confederation by custom, not law (parishes and parents created them ) • New Brunswick Schools Act ○ Abolish the schools unless the • Province tried to abolish their schools • Taxes to fund the uniform schools • The Bishop says that you do not need to pay the taxes, the Catholics took the province to court, they say that section 93 in the BNA act only applied to the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, they appealed to Ottawa, at first they were going to side with the province, the Catholic continue to refuse to pay taxes and some people were getting their property taken away, the final court of appeal is in the House of Lords in London, they also uphold the rights of the province The Acadians • Established since the early 1600s • Expulsion 1755-60s • Parish schools independent of the government • Acadian Renaissance Confrontations of separate schools for language and religion were an ongoing battle for Acadians Robert Young vs. Caraquet • An anti-Confederate MHN & cabinet minister • Protestant • Powerful figure in Gloucester County, New Brunswick • Enforced the Common Schools Act • Caraquet (town in Gloucester county) has 79 Protestants and 3 000 Catholics • Glouchester elected two Catholics in 1874 The Caraquet Riot • Most Roman Catholics in New Brunswick vigorously opposed the school legislation • Roman Catholics in New Brunswick appealed to Ottawa, MacDonald passed the responsibility to the imperial government • Tensions came to a head in the village of Caraquet in January 1875 • Nine Acadians were trialed for murder • The charges were all dismissed and the government permitted religious orders to teach Roman Catholics in areas where numbers warranted • November 1874 ○ Catholics elected their parish officials • January 1875 ○ Young called a secret meeting of Protestants to replace them ○ A second meeting ended in a scuffle • January 26, 1875 ○ 10 constables arrived + a mob 'Young's Army' to arrest Acadians ○ Shots were fired, two killed ○ Nine Acadians were put to trial but freed after two trials Ontario vs. The Dominion • Sir Olivier Mowat, prime Minister of Ontario, 1872-1896 ○ One of the fathers of Confederation Inherits the Grits, the liberal party ○ Inherits the Grits, the liberal party ○ He is the second premier • Provinces are not subordinate to the Dominion ○ Meant equal powers in their own sphere ○ Confederation put an end to the French Tory domination in the local affairs of Ontario ○ Setting the foundation for a war between Ottawa and Toronto ○ The court sides with the province Liquor Laws • Alcohol had long been a favoured target of conservativereformers, who saw it as the cause of many of Canada's problems • The movement to encouraged temperance in the consumption of alcohol had made the state impose laws about manufacturers, sale and consumptions • Two popular temperance groups were = Sons of Temperance and the Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) • The federal government passed the Canada
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