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HIS 2363 Course 20.pdf

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University of Ottawa
Christian Champion

Course 20 November-20-13 11:24 AM Paper due Reviewsession during the last class but start the class prior to that Foundingof Canada`s first nation wide socialistparti Dominsion-wideSocialistParty • CCF,cooperative commonwealthfederation (Canadian Encyclopedia) ○ Co-operativeCommonwealthFederation (CCF),founded 1932 in Calgaryas a political coalition of progressive, socialist and labour forces anxious to establish a political vehiclecapable of bringing about economic reforms to improve the circumstancesof those sufferingthe effectsof the GREATDEPRESSION.The main impetus for the formation of the new party camefrom farmers'organizations (including the UNITED FARMERSOF ALBERTA,which governed that province), a handful of academicsin the LEAGUE FORSOCIALRECONSTRUCTION(LSR)and a GINGER GROUPof MPs in Ottawa allied with both farmer and trade-union organizations. ○ In 1933 the party met in Regina,where it chose J.S. WOODSWORTHas its first president. Woodsworth, an MP since 1921,was the acknowledgedleader of the party both inside and outside Parliament. The party also adopted the ReginaManifesto, which set out its goals, including that of creating a mixed economy through the NATIONALIZATIONof key industries and that of establishing a WELFARESTATEwith universal pensions, health and welfareinsurance, children'sallowances, unemployment insurance, workers' compensation and similar programs. ○ The CCFquickly established itself in Canadian political life, electingmembersto Parliament and to several provincial legislatures. In 1935,7 CCFMPs were returned and the party captured8.9% of the popular vote. In 1940,8 MPs were returned on 8.5% of the popular vote. At the beginning of WWIIthe CCFwas split between supporters of Woodsworth's uncompromisingpacifismand supporters of Canada's entry into the conflict. ○ M.J. COLDWELL,who succeededWoodsworth as leader during this period, favoured Canada's participation, and under his moderate guidancethe party began to flourish electorally. It won the criticalYork South by-electionin February 1942,in the process preventing the Conservativeleader, former Prime Minister Arthur MEIGHEN, from entering the Commons; topped a September1943 national Gallup poll; camesecond in that year's Ontario elections; and, under the leadership of T.C. DOUGLAS,took officein Saskatchewanin 1944.In the 1945federal election the CCF returned 28 MPs, garnering 15.6% of the popular vote. ○ Although the CCFwas well established, it gradually declined in popular appeal after the war. A socialist party, it was accusedof being associated with communism,and during COLDWARtension this image was damaging.An attempt in 1956to soften the party's image by replacing the ReginaManifesto with a new, moderate document,the Winnipeg Declaration,could not reverse the trend, and in 1958 the party suffereda disastrous defeat:only 8 MPs were elected with a mere 9.5% of the popular vote. Both Coldwell and Deputy Leader Stanley KNOWLESwere personally defeated. ○ Following this debacle an arrangementwas negotiated by David LEWIS between the CCF and the CANADIAN LABOURCONGRESS.The CLC,urged by Lewis to save democratic socialismin Canada, agreed to enter a formal alliance with the CCF to createa new party. In 1961the CCFentered a new phase, and emergedfrom a founding convention as the NEW DEMOCRATICPARTY.Although the CCFhad never held power nationally, the adoption of many of its ideas by ruling parties contributed greatly to the developmentof the Canadian welfarestate. • Roots in labour and farmerorganizing • It was an intellectual group • InfluencedPierre Trudeau • Eugene Forsey • Initial founding in 1933 • Large amount of women in the group, equal representation and equality between men and women • Protestant Christian origins • Presbyterians, Scott son of an arch deacon • Forsey, son of a Methodist • Havelock - called himself a Christian socialist • David Lewis - a secular Jewish • Governed by their Christian beliefs = the slavery movement,for example • It helps to govern society = second generation • Next generation, Pearson for example, have gotten rid of all Christian beliefs • In the 20th centurypeople are becoming schizophrenic , they want to impose Christian beliefs but they do not follow them • The struggleto createa dominion wide democratic socialist parti would renounce violenceand embraceparliamentary • The struggleto createa dominion wide democratic socialist parti would renounce violenceand embraceparliamentary needs • Movementfor prohibition, • 1920-30smost provinces were regulating liquor sales • Secularizedversion of Methodism, aim was to establish kingdom built on earth • Choose Woodsworth as there leaders, western origins of this, • Regina1933 convention Woodsworth was the leader of this parti • People like Scott were bilingual, but they were still English, • An important key to the CCF platform is centralization, they want to reform the constitution • ReginaManifesto ○ This documents some people wanted to put a non-violence change,it was rejected ○ (more for information not necessarilyon exam, but maybe good to know)  It appeals for support to all who believe that the time has come for a far-reachingreconstructionof our economic and political institutions and who are willing to work together for the carrying out of the following policies: □ 1. Planning  The establishment of a planned, socialized economic order, in order to make possible the most efficientdevelopmentof the national resourcesand the most equitable distribution of the national income.  It is now certain that in every industrial country some form of planning will replacethe disintegrating capitalist system. The C.C.F.will provide that in Canada the planning shall be done, not by a small group of capitalist magnatesin their own interests, but by public servants acting in the public interest and responsible to the people as a whole. □ 2. Socialization Of Finance  Socialization of all financial machinery--bankingcurrency,credit,and insurance, to make possible the effectivecontrol of currency,credit and prices, and the supplying of new productive equipment for socially desirable purposes  A National Investment Board must also be set up, working in co-operation with the socialized banking system to mobilize and directthe unused surpluses of production for socially desired purposes as determined by the Planning Commission.  Insurance Companies, must also be socialized. □ 3. Social Ownership  Socialization (Dominion, Provincial or Municipal) of transportation, communications,electric power and all other industries and servicesessential to social planning, and their operation under the general direction of the Planning Commissionby competentmanagementsfreed from day to day political interference.  Public utilities must be operated for the public benefit and, not for the private profit of a small group of owners or financialmanipulators.  Transportation, communicationsand electricpower must come first in a list of industries to be socialized.  The managementof publicly owned enterprises will be vested in boards who will be appointed for their competencein the industry and will conducteach particular enterprise on efficienteconomic lines.  Workers in these public industries must be free to organize in trade unions and must be given the right to participate in the managementof the industry. □ 4. Agriculture  Security of tenure for the farmerupon his farm on conditions to be laid down by individual provinces; insurance against unavoidable crop failure; □ 5. External Trade  The regulation in accordancewith the National plan of external trade through import and export boards □ 6. Co-operativeInstitutions  The encouragementby the public authority of both producers' and consumers' cooperative institutions □ 7. Labour Code  A National Labour Code to secure for the worker maximum income and leisure, insurance covering accident,old age, and unemployment, freedom of association and effectiveparticipation in the managementof his industry or profession □ 8. Socialized Health Services  Publicly organized health, hospital and medical services □ 9. B.N.A. Act  The amendment of the Canadian Constitution, without infringing upon racial or religious minority rights or upon legitimateprovincial claims to autonomy, so as to give the Dominion Government rights or upon legitimateprovincial claims to autonomy, so as to give the Dominion Government adequate powers to deal effectivelywith urgent economic problems which are essentially national in scope; the abolition of the Canadian Senate □ 10. External Relations  A Foreign Policy designed to obtain international economic cooperation and to promote disarmamentand world peace  Canada has a vital interest in world peace. □ 11. Taxation And Public Finance  A new taxation policy designed not only to raise public revenues but also to lessen the glaring inequalities of income and to provide funds for social servicesand the socialization of industry; the cessation of the debt-creatingsystem of Public Finance □ 12. Freedom  Freedom of speech and assemblyfor all; repeal of Section98 of the Criminal Code; amendment of the Immigration Actto prevent the present inhuman policy of deportation; equal treatment before the law of all residents of Canada irrespectiveof race, nationality or religious or political beliefs □ 13. Social Justice  The establishment of a commissioncomposed of psychiatrists,psychologists, socially minded jurists and social workers, to deal with all matters pertaining to crime and punishment and the general administration of law, in order to humanize the law and to bring it into harmony with the needs of the people □ 14. An EmergencyProgramme  The assumption by the Dominion Government of direct responsibility for dealing with the present criticalunemploymentsituation and for tendering suitable work
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