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HIS 2363 Course 22.pdf

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Christian Champion

Course 22 November-27-13 11:25 AM A North American Nation 1941 - Wartime visit of the President • Represents a new phase for Canada because in 1935 you had for the first time free trade (reciprocity) • This was the end of the crippling tariffs duringthe great depression • When US put protectionist tariffs on their goods so did Canada,which may have in a way caused the Great Depression, this came to an end with the emplacement of the reciprocity treaty • This is when Bennett said that Canadawould "smash" it`s way into foreign markets • Process began under Bennett • First attempt to increase trade with Britain • It was the return of the natural trading pattern between the two North American neighbors • Credited to Mackenzie King because he won the election • This then lays out the ground work for the real economic boom that happensafter WW2 • Roots lie in the 1930s • This is importantbecause it is the origin of the Tory critiquewhich we get from George Grant in the 1960s, rooted in the idea that the trade between Canada and the USA can never be in Canada`s interest because of smaller industries and they will always be at a disadvantage • Classic Red Tory Critique, left wing toryism - we sold out • Allowed the Americans to make a direct investments in Canada • The second is that throughmore open trade this also undermines Canadian involvement • This means that Canadiansare expected un protected to consumerism • Gradually Canada will become colonized by the USA • The bad guy in this critiqueis Mackenzie King who sold out Canada to the USA 1871- 1931 • Comparison from beginningand end of the class • Population : ○ Population: 1871, 3.7 million - 1931, 10.4 million - 1939, 11.3 million ○ Canadianborn: 1871 - 84%, 1931 - 50% ○ Other British born:1871 - 14%, 1931 - 25% ○ Foreign born:1871 - 3%, 1931 - 25% ○ This shows and putsinto notion that most of the immigration was after 1871 • Urban rural divide: ○ 1871- 80% rural, 20% urban ○ 1931 - 54% urban,46% rural ○ This shows a major changein lifestyle The Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relation: • Better known as the Rowell-Sirois Commission • In the 1930s • The first premier conferencein 1887 did not includethe prime minister, as it was a protest against the prime minister of Canada • Starting in 1906, Sir Wilfred Laurier becomes the first prime minster to attend this • Becomes the first ministers meeting • Now a regular meeting • Borden, King, Bennett all followed suit • Much to talk about:problem in financialsubsidies to the provinces, federal - provincial relations in general, whether the constitutioncould be amended • This was under Canada's request • Times were changingespecially when it came to taxes, in the 1930s onlythe federal government, PEI and BC collected corporatetaxes • By 1939 all of the provinces and the federal government had corporatetaxes - motive, a matter of justice • By 1939, 4 provincealso had income taxes (QC, ON, SK and AB) • Gas taxes by the provinces were doubled by 1939 as compared to 1930 • The dominionprovincial conference for the first time included influential intellectuals, influentialindividualsthat had more education • Some of that type of people by this time were starting to swell the ranks of bureaucracy • Grows more after WW2 • Grows more after WW2 • The primary goal of this conference was to discuss the flow of fundsfrom federal office to the provinces • But in 1937, because the conferences were not the best way to solve this problem, Mackenzie King will appointa royal commission • Picked a liberal from Ontario,Rowell , he does not continuethis commission for a longer than a few monthsbecause he is ill, Joseph Sirois will take over • Another member was J.W. Dafoe (WinnipegFree Press Journalist) • Frank Scott as well • This commission takes several years to finish, not until1940 is there a report • It is considered to be one of the most influentialcommissions of a federal system • Litany to the federal trying to take power from the provinces • The idea was that there shouldnot be more centralization in the government, however this commission does show a more centralized power in Ottawa • On the other hand they were in a depression a
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