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HIS2363 (35)
Lecture

Oct 7th Lecture.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS2363
Professor
Christian Champion
Semester
Fall

Description
Traditionalists: wanted to go back to the “old” ways ; railway = too fast Church: different responses to this St. Joseph’s Oratory, built on rock St. Joseph: protected workers Frere Andre: had a vision (small town boy; had dream) Modern architecture; concrete, steel Cure Labelle: priest, known as the “roi du Nord” 1833­1891 Became a great profit of colonization/settlement The revenge of “Montcalm”; settling the countryside/north One of the embodiments of the French­catholic confidence Wrote: the greatest achievement by a nation to conquer our conquerers. Population of North: Miners, factory workers, tourism All of this met with Federal approval Labelle travelled to France in 1885 to attract more immigrants and investments ***1879 founded “La societe de colonistion”; under Bishop’s authority Premier of Quebec: Mercier, (skeptical at first) 1888: Liberal premier made Labelle assistant commissioner to agriculture and  colonization Labelle tried to resign; Mercier refused, but he quit anyways and died in 1891 Canadian pop 1867: 3.7 million 1891: 4.8 million  Largest city at confederation: 100 000 people (Montreal) Toronto: 50 000 Other cities: merely 10 000 people 100 000­125 000 native peoples in the entire country 100 000 Metis 2 000 Inuit Aboriginal pop­ decline until 1920; where population growth is more than others Only 250 000 people in North West and Manitoba Emigration: more people leaving than coming in Western Canada: “Huge demographic railways station” Between 1873­1896 (worst period) 1.25 million arrived, but 1.56 left Why people left Canada for America: mostly left for USA more developed higher wages more jobs better living standards stronger economy Goldwin­Smith: The Canadian Question This pattern continued until the Great Depression Increase of population came in spurts: before ww1, after ww2 French Canadians “Les Petits Canada” English emmigrants did not congregate together; French however, did (New England) Settled in what is known as “les Petits Canadas” Vermount= largest group After 1870; Massachusetts Only ethnic group to have emigrated by train Initiatives 1870s to attract people back Up to ½ of French Canadian returned to Canada by 1900 No Cure Labelle in English Canada However, immigration thought to be a reason for success Sir Clifford Sifton Typical colonists, born Ontario Family settled in Manitoba 1870s Elected to Manitoba Legislature 1888 Triumph of “Ontario Democracy” Manitoba was a truly “Canadian” province However, was more or less a colony of ON Minister of the Interior under Laurier and Supt. of Indian affairs Immigration agents on commission Millions of ads Other promotion How to attract farming immigrants? “I think a stalwart peasant in a sheep­skin coat, born on the soil, whose forefathers have  ben farmers for ten generations, with a stout wife and a half­dozen children, is good  quality.” What happened to Manitoba? “Big Fish, small pond” T
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