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HIS 3107 Religion and Culture, 1840-1867.pdf

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Religion and Culture, 1840-1867 November-05-13 4:02 PM • The Roman Catholic Church ○ An overwhelming proportion of nineteenth-century French Canadians were Roman Catholics  Roughly 85%  Structured almost every aspect of society, birth, illness, life as a married person, literarily every aspect of your life  Religious observance was high at the mid 19th century, but it will intensify and get stronger as the century goes on  Irish Catholics were the next highest group forming 10% of the Catholic population ○ The Catholic Church was a far more important institution than the state in 19th century Quebec  It administered the Catholic school systems, ran hospital, orphanages, published newspapers, part of rural development, and economy, (for examples)  The bishop of Quebec was the top level of the Church but now there are archbishops,  The creation of other archdiocese brings down the power of the one in Montreal  At first all of the Catholics and bishops must respond to the archbishop of Montreal, this changes as time goes on ○ After the rebellions, French Canadians increasingly sought guidance in Quebec`s most stable institution: the Roman catholic Church  See development in Catholic devotion in this time  The patriots brought disaster to Quebec  French Canadians will turn to the Church because of this  There are still radicals (les rouges) but they do not have as much power  Power increases in the mid 19th century  Late 19th century people were not in the position to go against papal authority, what the state does is adapt themselves to the clerical authority and power  The Church does not control everything, its power was not gone against,  The Church does not force itself on the community in contrary it was the French who searched for guidance in the Church  People listened to the Church because in large they agreed with the Church  The Church becomes closer to the people in the mid 19th century ○ The legal status of the Roman Catholic Church was reinforced under the Special Church  The Churches property rights will be clarified and reinforced  Church was always afraid of having their lands taken away by the British  Church was afraid of needing to pay taxes on their land  The tax exempt status will be clarified  Council will lift restrictions on the recruitment put upon male clerics during the Conquest  What put the Church on a leash was lifted because they recognized the importance to the Church and it was thanking the Church for its support during the rebellions,  The Church still give their support to the British, but they are no longer on a leash, so they can seek to have a different relationship with the state and with the people  Clerical loyalty will not disappear but it will diminish  In the lead up to the rebellion the Churches leadership was challenged by merchants, doctors, etc.. People who seen life through a secular lens, their was a distaste in the population  The church had grown distant from the people, from the people of the middle class, because of its relationship with Britain  After the rebellions the Church will try and get the people back  Gets the independence of the Crown because of the Special Council  Allow the Church to formulate a new relationship with the people  Create a doctrine that was guided towards the French Canadians  Opposed the democratic and Quebec nationalism of the Patriots,  After the rebellions you will see the Church emerge as creating a new conservative nationalism  Nationalism can be attached to socialism and culturalism, but it goes better with ideas that do not have classes • Evolution of nationalism and identity ○ The Conservative nationalism espoused by many leading clerics was centered on religion, language, culture, and ethnicity  Msgr. LaFlèche  Central pillar of nationality was to be Catholic to be French Canadian  Central pillar of nationality was to be Catholic to be French Canadian  For the patriots nationalism was tied to the political project of the patriots  Not a function of territory of civic values  This was not Quebec Nationalism it was French Canadian nationalism  Larger than Quebec it incorporates all French Canadians  The conservative nationalism, firmly goes against violence and revolution  Leaders were not only Catholic Clergy men, lay people were also part of the leaders,  It was not without its critics, but it becomes popular with most of the French Canadian people,  Becomes quickly the dominant form of nationalism in Quebec ○ The republican nationalism of the rouges competed with the conservative nationalism of Msgr. Bourget  They are fighting a losing battle ○ Nationalism and separatism are NOT synonymous  It did not seek to establish an independent Quebec, there are some people that argued this but by in large no  What it sought to do was to protect minority rights by the national level, as well as in other provinces  So that the French Canadians outside Quebec were protected  The Church does not like rupture, discontinuity, they see this like a divorce, which is not allowed for Catholics  Its not that the Church hates change it hates quick and sudden change  The Church is not keen on Quebec independence, ○ The rise of conservative nationalism was tied to the rise of ultramontanism  What is it □ The concept emerges in pre revolutionary France □ Designate clerics that see the importance of the Pope, □ Pope Pius IX □ For them the Pope is higher than the King □ The Pope should appoint everyone in the Catholic Church □ Believes that the Church is higher than the State  Pope Pius IX was anti-nationalism  Ultramontanism is anti-nationalist  Plays out differently in French Canada and Ireland  In French Canada leading nationalist possessed a devotion to the Pope, and believed in the idea that the Church is higher than the State  Secularism  State should be subordinate to the Church  To be French Canadian you need to be Catholic, that Church affairs are higher than State affairs and that you believe that the Pope is the highest level of authority  Viewed Catholicism as the important factor of the French Canadian nation  Chosen people intrusted with a divine mission  Divine mission to spread Catholicism throughout the Canadian nation  More affected in Montreal than those in the Quebec and Trois-Rivière  A greater willingness to those in Quebec to go with the State, you see less of this in Montreal and Trois-Rivière  Not able to resell control from other partis  The Church is becoming closer to the people and ultramontane ○ The Temperance movement swept across Canada East during the 1840s, led by the charismatic Father Charles Chiniquy  One of the crusades that the Church will pursue is the temperance movement  As the Church becomes more popular and influential it is able to recruit more popular and influential people  In the end he was too charismatic  In the end he becomes a Protestant  Apostasy - someone who changes religion  Once he changes he becomes one of the most hated people in French Quebec  Movement to settle land outside the St. Lawrence valley, ultramontane ideas control this movement, placing people in the Eastern Townships, that were full of English Protestants, it was not only to claim new land for agriculture but also to claim new land for God  Church wants to reconquer the Townships ○ The mid to late 19th century was a period of transition for national identity Quebec  Early in the 19th century, French Canadians would refer to themselves as a Canadiens  Stood in contrast to the British groups, who named themselves, British, the old British subjects, Irish, Scottish, etc…  Starting under the union of the Canadas this will change, the maple leaf, the beaver and eventually in the 20th century O Canada, which was a French Canadian anthem,  Its not that they don’t view themselves as British they just view themselves as different from the other cultures  What happens is in an effort to continue to assert and show their distinctiveness, you see French Canadians start introducing themselves as Canadien Français, you see the fleur de lys as replacing the maple leaf as the French Canadian symbol Canadian symbol  Lengthy process  Until the 1860s the name Quebecois was used to talk about the inhabitants of Quebec city, the idea of Quebec nation does not appear until the mid to late 20th century  Union is very important ○ The union of the Canadas fostered a heightened sense of vulnerability among French Canadians  Vulnerable in the face of British power  With the incorporation of Lower Canada not only did the French Canadians not control their state, now they are a minority in the state  What does it mean to be French Canadian it means to be part of a minority  For English speaking Quebecers this does this opposite, English Protestants were now part of the majority • The Protestant Churches ○ The diversity of Quebec's English-speaking population was reflected in its religious affiliations  There is no Protestant Church, there are Protestant Churches  The largest single denomination is Catholicism  The next was Anglicanism, Presbyterianism and Methodist  Religious affiliation was much less stable among English Quebecers, for French Canadians 99% of the population was Catholic  Families were divided by religions, and for people to change religion was not unheard of, they also intermarry, and keep their original religions  There are few French-speaking protestants, maintain closer ties to English Protestants then to French Catholics  Catholics that would become Protestants would be Suisse, they were dangerous, they are viewed with hostility, they were not considered French Canadians anymore  98-99% had a religion affiliation on a census  According to the 1874 census there were 74 Jewish in Quebec  In the northern half of Quebec was being administered by the Hudson's Bay Company ○ The Cree and the Inuit of northern Quebec saw themselves as part of a cosmological order that included the land, the animals, the stars, and the sea.  Rituals were set on maintaining a balance with forces ○ Religious and ethic tensions were not uncommon in mid 19th century Quebec  A bigger sense of unity in different forms of Protestantism in Quebec  Often pitted the French against the English, the Irish and the English as well as Irish and French Catholics  Catholic Church did its best to smooth out problems and tension between the different Catholic groups  The tensions were stronger outside of Quebec (between Irish and French), in Ontario the tensions were big, who controlled the Catholic Church • The education system ○ Ethnic t
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