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Lecture 2

HIS 3107, An introduction to Quebec History (Week 2).pdf

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An introduction to Quebec History (Week 2) September-10-13 3:48 PM • Quebec`s geography ○ To some extent, Quebec is on the periphery (on the outside) of the North Americancontinent  More true for Quebec`snorthern and eastern regions  It`s geography has impacted its effectsand its history  Why it could sustain a agricultural ○ Quebec can be divided into three physiograhic regions  The Canadian shield (Bouclier Canadian) □ The Canadian shield dominates the province'sphysical landscape □ Very mountainous terrain □ Lots of minerals □ The growing season is very short, the land is also poorly suited for agriculture  The saint Lawrenceplain (La vallée du St-Laurent) □ The St. Lawrence Plain is the province`s most arable physiographic region □ Most populated area in what will become Quebec □ Early Frenchsettlementwas along this area □ Is an exceptionally flat landscape □ Very low landscape □ The St. Lawrence river was Quebec'smain highway (seaway) very important to transportation □ Land is plentiful however, it is less plentiful then the Ohio valley as well as northern Ontario  The Appalachians (Les Appalaches) □ The northern tier of the Appalachian physiographic region dominates much of south-eastern Quebec □ They are very old mountains □ The are the remnants of old mountains that have broken down over the years □ Mountain landscape, but a low mountain landscape □ A few high elevated mountains, however the higher mountain in Quebec is in the Canadian Shield on the coast of Labrador □ There is arable land however it is not plentiful ○ For much of the nineteenth century, Quebec'sboundaries straddles the St. Lawrence River  In 1867 the territory of Quebec ended around the Abitibi regions  In 1898 the territory of Quebec expanded further north which goes to the south of James Baie  In ___ (look at PowerPoint) it expended to include everything but the Labrador region ○ Cultural, geographic,and economic distinctions have long existed in Quebec  Each region can be defined by cultural, geographic and economic differences  The Quebec city and Montreal accentare different  The Acadian et les Canadiens (French Canadians) were seen as being related but differentpeople (very similar to each other however they are differentpeople)  The regional differencesthat are present today are more important and significantin the 19th century then they are today  Regional differenceswere more apparent in the 19th century ○ The differencesbetween les vielles paroisses and les régions de colonisation were striking in the mid-nineteenth century  In the regions of later colonisation people often were poorer, like around Lac St-Jean,the Abitibi and the Témiscamingueregions  They not only sufferedfrom fertilesoil, harsher climatesbut they remained further from major markets, which made it harder for them to survive • The regions of Quebec ○ The Magdalen Islands (number 1 on the map) have traditionally been drawn, by virtue of their geography, their economy, and their culture, to the MaritimeProvinces  Smallestpopulation  Peopled by Acadians who ran from the Acadian expulsion  Most people in the land were Acadian, some of the oldest English towns live on these island  They lived on fishing and sealing  The Migma nations would use this as part of their seasonal cycle  They are more drawn to the Maritime Provinces then to Quebec  250 years of settlementhistory and a few thousand years of use  250 years of settlementhistory and a few thousand years of use ○ Baie-Comeauand Sept-Îleare the main centresof the North Shore (number 16-17 on the map)  Know this as being called the North Shore  Settled by FrenchCanadian and the Acadiansin the mid 19th century  The Lower North Shore was settled by Newfoundlanders, the Lower North Shore was on the side of Labrador  Has a very large island (Anticosti) very little settlement  Very sporadic settlement  Mining, logging and fishing are its main forms of economy  Innu (Montaignais) lived on the Eastern coast of the North Shore Gaspé, Bonaventure,and Matane are the Gaspé Peninsula`s major centres(number 2 on the map) ○  Most English settlers in this area speak French but they are protestant, however, in the 19th century,the conflictsin this time are not because of language but becauseof religion  Isolated and mountains regions  Fishing, substations agriculture,logging  Historically been tied to the Maritime Provinces  Most from Acadian descent  A few fishing merchantscontrolled the economy of this area  Debt pion - a state where you are forever in debt and you can never get out of it  This is a region where people would work all year but never see any money, they were stuck in debt peonage  Migmanations were the original inhabitants ○ Rimouskyand Rivièredu Loup are the Lower St.Lawrence`s major centres(number 3 on the map)  Heavily French speaking nation  Fishing, agricultureand logging  Was less poor and less isolated then the Gaspé Peninsula  Migmaand Malasy nations were the original inhabitants ○ Chicoutimi, Jonquière, and Alama are the major centresof the Saguenay- Lac-St-Jean(number 15 on the map)  Alama being in Lac-St-Jeanand the others in the Saguenayregions  Heavily French speaking regions  Agricultureand Logging are its main forms of economy  The further north in this region substitous agriculture becomesmore apparent  Economy controlled by a group a barons  Original inhabitants = south Innu (montaignais) north Cree ○ The Quebec City Regionincludes the scenic region of Charlevoix (number 4)  Established in 1608  Heavily French speaking region exceptfor Quebec city which population included 30-40%English speaking people  A port city  Economy was connectedto transatlantic transportation, commercialrelations with Britain  In the mid 19th centurythe economy of Quebec will drop slowly becauseof its attachmentto the United States  By the 1850s Quebecis no longer Canada`s metropolis  By the mid to late 1850s,Montreal will claimthat status as Canada`s metropolis  There is a long standing rivalry between Quebec and Montreal although one way because Montreal doesn’t give a hoot  Quebec is still an important part in Canada, religious capital of Canada  The archbishop of Quebec was the first archbishops  The political capital of British North Americaeven after the creation of the province of Canada in 1840  Quebec city becomes the new capital of Quebec in 1867  Important cultural center, English and Frenchnewspapers, Quebec`sfirst French University was established in 1852 (Laval university)  Political culture is differentbetween Quebeccity and Montreal  Original inhabitants = St. Lawrence Iroquois which will be replaced by the Innu (Montagnais) then by the remnants of the Huron Nations ○ Thetford-Minesand Saint-Georges-de-Beauceare the major centresof the Beauce(number 6 )  Bisectedby the Chaudière river  Really the heart of Quebec`sAppalachian region  Established in the 18-19thcentury  Heavily French Speaking region  Economy was by agriculture,until the late 20th centurywhen mining becomesimportant  Differentpolitical culture because it was in very close contactwith the United States (Maine)  Abanaki were the original inhabitants ○ Trois-Rivières,Nicolet, and Shawinigan are major centres of the Mauricie- Bois-Francsregion(number 7-20)  Heavily French speaking region  Heavily French speaking region  Agricultureand logging was their economy  Trois-Rivièrewas the religious centre (but different) ○ The Eastern Townships were settled in the early nineteenth century(number 8)  By British and Americansettlers  It will be primarily Frenchspeaking  One of Quebec`smost English speaking region  Largest center is Sherbrooke  Largely agricultural economy  Did not have a seigniorial system (tenure)  Well connectedto the United States, transportation and cultural  Unlike the Quebec city regions, the easterntownships do better as Canada become closer to the United States  Bishops University founded in 1843,English speaking university which was used to train Anglicanclergymen  Abanaki = first inhabitants ○ Longueuil, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu,Saint-Hyacintheand Sorel are the major centres of the Montérérie region  150 000 people  Can also be called the Montreal south shore  Sorel has a ocean port  Settled during the French Regime  Most of the fertile farmlands are found in this region  It has a few hills but generally speaking very level  Frenchspeaking regions, with some pockets of English speaking towns  Prosperous region  Close to major markets in Montreal and New York  Light industry, textile, shoe industry important to its economy  Major clashes during the 1837-1838rebellions, first shots and most major battles are in this regions  Liberal regions (votes liberal)  Had a very important classicalcollege  Original inhabitants = St-LawrenceIroquois, later it was replace of the Mohawk nations ○ Laval, the Lanaudière and the Lau
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