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HSS1100 Lecture 1

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University of Ottawa
Health Sciences
William Yan

Lecture 1 Slide 2: -bacteria: most common human pathogens and most known / studied -parasites: common but not in Canada; mostly in tropical climates where it is warm -viruses: we don't know as much because they are difficult to study and culture (hard to do research on); possibly causes as much disease as bacteria Slide 3: -viruses have the simplest organization / structure -they cannot survive on their own; relies on a host cell Slide 4: -bacteria are simple but more complicated than viruses Slide 5: -eukaryotes include fungi and parasites Are all bacteria bad? -NO; they can be advantageous -used to make drugs, food, make food last longer, can clean up toxic spills, allow for foods with additional benefits (e.g.: yogurt which prevents anti-biotic resistance when on anti-biotics) Can we live without bacteria? -YES; but it is better to live with bacteria because of their usefulness Slide 7: -normal flora: bacteria in your body that protects you -newborns must develop normal flora -we have the most potential to get an infection due to missing normal flora -old people get infections very easily because they have depleted normal flora -transient: short term; comes from interacting with the environment -survives only from hours to days (transience) -if transient flora lands in an ideal area and flourishes, it may become resident flora (stay in your body for a long time) -not every part of the body has bacteria -i.e.: the urinary tract, brain / CNS, blood, the respiratory tract is mostly sterile but not always, bone marrow, the lymphatic system, etc. -the largest amount of normal flora is found in the large intestine (due to its alkaline state) -a lot of normal flora are also found in the mouth, on the skin, and in the nose -bacteria out-compete other bacteria that come in the body Slide 8: -a hand washing lab involved a pre-wash and a post-wash and it was found that there was more cultured bacteria post-wash, contrary to the expected pre-wash -there is transient flora on dead skin and resident flora living underneath in the epidermis -handwashing exposes resident flora -we should wash our hands well or it is better off to not wash it (we need to get rid of both transient and resident flora; wash for at least 30 seconds) -normal flora bacteria are harmless as long as they stay where they are supposed to be -e.g.: there is E.coli in the gut; if E.coli get in the urinary tract it will cause an infection -the most common normal flora is on the skin and is known as Staphylococcus epidermidis -if it lands on a surgical site other than skin, it will cause infection -e.g.: S.epidermidis in the heart leads to myocarditis Mechanical Barriers 1) Skin -isn't very hospitable for bacteria -the outside skin is dry, dead, and acidic (bacteria prefer slightly alkaline environments) -bacteria prefers warm, moist, and slightly alkaline environments -sweat is anti-bacterial -intact skin is a good barrier
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