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Lecture 9

HSS1100 Lecture 9

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University of Ottawa
Health Sciences
William Yan

Lecture 9 Viruses Part 2 Slide 2: Viruses Causing Glandular Enlargement 1) Mumps -used to be a very big problem as a childhood disease -characterized by both parotid glands being enlarged -may have inapparent infections, lending to its infectiousness -is usually a self-limiting disease -person will get lifetime resistance against infection -may lead to more systemic infections if it gets into the CNS, the genitals (causing sterility0 -passed on by saliva or droplets -MMR vaccine is very affective (measles, mumps, rubella) 2) Infection Mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr Virus) -one of the few viruses not named after the disease -mono is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus -belongs to the herpes family of viruses -affects children and young adults -not life threatening; causes long term, flu-like symptoms -called the 'kissing disease' because it is passed on by saliva transfer -considered a chronic disease because of its persistence -the best way to detect it is by doing a blood test -the virus agglutinates RBCs -we detect for RBC agglutination (monospot test) Slide 5: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) -may cause neonatal infections; women are common carriers -may cause jaundice, enlarged liver and spleen, etc. -the biggest risk is for 2 groups of patients; -transplant patients -AIDS and other immunocompromised patients -organs are screened for this virus before transplants -can diagnose the virus from urine, blood, organ biopsies, etc. -we should screen donors and recipients before transplant -using antiviral drugs are the last resort; they are expensive and have severe side effects for the patients -the most important step for prevention is by observing universal precautions (i.e.: handwashing, sterile, etc.) Slide 7: Hepatitis Viruses -hepatitis involves inflammation of the liver -viruses and bacteria can cause hepatitis; the hepatitis viruses are the most common -symptoms include nausea, loss of appetite, jaundice -the 2 most common hepatitis viruses are hepatitis A and B and C (possibly); C, E, and G, are less common -we use serological diagnosis 1) Hepatitis A -food-borne virus -mainly affects children and young adults -very few cases in developed countries -may be epidemic in developing countries; locals are immune, but tourists are not -mainly transmitted by the fecal-oral route (drinking water or eating food that is contaminated by someone carrying the virus) -developing countries have low standards regarding their water supply -symptoms are usually not life threatening; there is no chronic hepatitis -there is life-long immunity -the best way to diagnose is to look at antibody titer; check for the presence of IgM -vaccine is available -there was an outbreak in US and Canada that was traced back to green onions that was used in Mexican restaurants and their salsa -shellfish may be a big problem for hepatitis viruses; in the environment, they are called bottom feeders -they get their nutrients by filtering water -it may also collect toxins and concentrate them into their body -since viruses are susceptible to heating, it is advisable to cook shellfish -it is important to know where your shellfish are coming from -as temperature of water increases, the more viruses can replicate; in the summer, you want shellfish from bodies of water that are more up North 2) Hepatitis B -has a different route of transmission -comes from exposure to body fluids from people who have that virus -2nd to HIV, in terms of levels of precaution taken -treat every sample as though it is contaminated; wear gloves, be careful, etc. -has a very long incubation time (takes up to 3 months for symptoms to occur) -30-60 days before the onset of symptoms, there are enough virus particles to be infectious -symptoms are more severe -leads to chronic inflammation of the liver -diagnosis is by serology test -prevention by universal precautions, proper handling of needles, proper screening, vaccination, 3) Hepatitis C -not as common as A and B; may be as severe as hep C -transferred from person to person through body fluids -symptoms may be mild (if the person is healthy) or may develop into a chronic infection -preventions include universal precaution, screening, etc. -no vaccine available -hep C patients sued Red cross -Red Cross wasn't being proactive in using the hep C test kit, and people got hep C from blood transfusions 4) Hepatitis Delta Ag
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