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Lecture 9

HSS1101 Lecture 9: Chapter9

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Health Sciences
Tien Nguyen

CHAPTER 9: Recognizing use, misuse, abuse addiction to drugs behaviours DRUG USE, MISUSE AND ABUSE Drug abuse illegal (illicit) psychoactive drugs Many people abuse misuse prescription and overthecounter drugs As well as legal substances ex. Coffee, tobacco, alcohol herbal preparations Drug misuse include not taking prescription or overthecounter drugs according to directions not completing full dose of prescription Drug abuse excessive use difficult to distinguish; what is excessive for 1 person may not for another (due to size, sex, previous use); defined to motivation for taking drug > ex. If taking higher than prescribed dose of prescribed med for euphoric effect To compare risks to benefits create a drug profile INDIVIDUAL RESPONSE: SET SETTING Individuals differ in how they respond to drugs behaviours that are potentially addictive Responses to drugs behaviours different within individuals Set setting: 2 factors influence main side effects of drugs Main effect: general purpose of the drug; side effect: other effect (note desired from drugbehaviour) Set: refers to total internal enviro (mindset) of a person during drug is taken behaviour is engaged in Physical, emotional, social factors interact to influence DEFINING ADDICTION Before addiction use only to describe dependence on drugsubstance Now extended to include mood altering behaviours activities If addicted to drugbehaviour > likely to exhibit at least 3 of the following: (pg. 263) Physiological dependence is 1 indicator; psychological dynamics play important role explains why behaviours not related to use of chemicals can also be addictive Psychological state = Physiological state Chemicalsdrugs are responsible for most addictions (not only because they produce mood changes) but they also cause cellular changes to which body adapts that it requires chemical in order to function normally All forms of addiction reflect dysfunction of certain biochemical systems in the brain THE PHYSIOLOGY OF ADDICTION All emotional, mental behavioural function occur as a result of biochemical interactions between nerve cells in body Biochemical messengers neurotransmitters; drug use chronic stress can alter these sites cause the production and breakdown of neuro Ex. moodaltering chemicals fill up receptor sites for bodys natural feel good neuro (endorphins) When drug use stopped: receptor sites become emptied > uncomfy feelings that remain until body resumes neuro production or more of the drug is consumed Some peoples bodies always produce insufficient quantities of these neuro so seek chemicals (alcohol as substitutes) or pursue behaviours Thus, we may engaged to seek substancesexperiences that increase pleasurereduce discomfort Tolerance: when drug consumed regularly or behaviour engaged in consistently Difference between those who dodo not become addicted quantity frequency of their use or engagement; also negative effects as result of their use Withdrawal if experience is repeated often or substance ingested frequently > body makes adjustments thus drug or experience obtain the effect it previously produced itself Stopping behaviour or no longer ingesting drug results in physiological psychological symptoms of withdrawal Symptoms of chemical dependencies are opposite of the effects of the drug taken Common withdrawal symptoms for discontinued addictive behaviours; range from mild to severe *Severest form: delirium tremens (DTs); occurs for people addicted to alcohol for 10 years or more when stop after several months of heavy drinking THE ADDICTIVE PROCESS
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