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Lecture 8

HSS1101 Lecture 8: Lecture 8

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University of Ottawa
Health Sciences
Raywat Deonandan

Lecture 8.1: Determinants of Health (Simple Measure of Low Income and Poverty) What is Socioeconomic Status (SES) -Some kind of combination of one, two or three of: -Income -Education -Social Class Low Income… -Lack of access to nutritious food -Lack of access to a vehicle -Restriction to problematic neighbourhoods -Limited educational opportunities -Limited access to health services (even in socialized medicine?) Food Desert: An urban area in which it is difficult to buy affordable or good-quality fresh food Food Deserts in Edmonton Food Desert (No car and no supermarket store within a mile Poverty -the state of being poor -What does it mean when we say that 21% of children in the USA live beneath the poverty line? Or that 10.2% of Danish children live in poverty? Do those statistics mean that Denmark is twice as wealthy as the USA? Is a poor Person in Denmark as similarly deprived as a poor person in the USA? -A standard definitions of a poverty line is the minimum level income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living. But what is an adequate standard of living -Food? -Housing? -Education? -Entertainment? -Health? -Services? Relative Poverty: below a threshold computed from within the population of interest -Economic distance Absolute Poverty: defined in terms of the minimal requirements necessary to afford a basic standard of living Relative Poverty -Example: households with an accumulated income less than a percentage of the median income (usually 50% or 60%) are living in poverty -By definition, regardless of overall wealth of the society there will always be someone living in poverty Absolute Poverty -(sometimes used to mean “extreme poverty”, which is not how i'm using it here) -Functionally, it's the absence of enough resources (money) to secure basic resources of life -According to 1995 World Summit on Social Development, “absolute poverty” means a “condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information. It depends not only on income but also on access to services. -But how do you operationalize that? -One attempt defines absolute poverty as having any two of: 1. Food: BMI must be above a certain threshold (usually 16) 2. Safe drinking water: water must not come solely from rivers and ponds and must be available nearby (less than 15 minute walk each way) 3. Sanitation Facilities: Toilets must be near and accessible 4. Health: Treatment must be received for serious illnesses and
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