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Lecture 16

HSS2111 Lecture 16: HSS2111 Lecture note 16

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University of Ottawa
Health Sciences
Tien Nguyen

Lecture 16 Appendicular skeleton injuries Leg Muscle Groups  Soleus (type 1) & Gastrocnemius (type 2 more active muscle) Thigh Muscle Groups -vastus medialis  deep within the thigh -vastus lateralis  -knee extension on the anterior section of the thigh -knee flexion on the posterior section of the thigh The Knee: Bones: femur, tibia, fibula Knee joints -patellofemoral joint: holds patella -sesamoid bone -gives more movement of the knee -tibiofemoral joint: weight-bearing joint of the knee Muscle groups: quadriceps-large muscle at the anterior of thigh, hamstrings- knee extensor, popliteus-knee fold -multiple ligaments act together as a whole ligaments: MCL, LCL & ACL, PCL  everything is hinge synovial joints Forming the cross with the anterior/posterior cruciate ligament  preventing the dislocation Insert on tibia and prevent movement of the tibia from anterior to posterior Menisci: medial & lateral Common injuries to the lower leg Contusions: tibia is common for bruise - since it is really close to the surface and involve muscles & nerves right below it -which makes it painful Strains: from repetitive/explosive dynamic force is attached to the legs to strains to occur Fractures: common in sports - commonly tibia & fibula with lack of protection than other parts of the body commonly open fracture  cranial nerve damage is common Achilles Tendonitis: gradual inflammation of Achilles tendon -common in runners & other types involving pushing of the ground  worsen with continued overuse -it can lead to Achilles Tendon Rupture commonly by sudden excessive force -common site 1-2in close to insertion Signs/symptoms: pain, inflammation, loss of mobility of the ankle Treatment: commonly, surgery is required requires long rehab around 12months to heal Thompson test is used to find out if the tendon is still attached Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome "Shin Splints": anterior/medial pain in lower leg -common with repetitive activity on hard surfaces  eg. runners-running on toes & over-pronation, people with high intense activities + improper footwear can also trigger this splint Treatments: commonly, resting, stretching, cooling, biomechanical evaluation, physical therapy, gradual activity progression + taping Compartment Syndrome: inflammation & pressure in 1 or more compartments commonly anterior compartment -don’t memorize all the lower leg compartments -usually happens with car crash and lots of bone fractures with high impact, contusions, infection, burns -involves pain, numbness, weakness somethings infection can lead to this requiring immediate attention to remove all the facia to reduce the pressure within it -requires surgical emergency **it can happen in other parts of the body Common injuries to the knee Patellar Tendonitis: inflammation of patellar tendon
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