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Lecture 2

HSS2511 Lecture 2: Posture review- Ch 2

3 Pages

Health Sciences
Course Code
Steve Pelletier

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Posture Review- Ch 2 Joints • Points of contact of 2 or more bones • Functions: bind bones together and for mobility Classification • Joints can be classified based on their potential movements or based on their mechanical analogy 1. Synarthroses: little or no movement; reinforced by a combination of fibrous (cranial sutures) tissues and cartilage (pubic symphysis) 2. Diarthroses (synovial): moderate to extensive movement; often joined by a cavity filled with synovial fluid, allowing for a wide range of movement • Characteristics of a synovial joint: synovial fluid, synovial membrane (around fluid), ligaments, joint cartilage, blood vessels and sensory nerves • Characteristics that are sometimes present in a synovial joint: meniscus/ joint disks, labrum (bourrelet, found in the elbows and hips to increase amount of movement), adipose (pain in the knee’s caused by inflammation of these tissues), bursa (diminish force put onto the bones), synovial plica Other methods of classification are by their mechanical analogy • Troclear (humerus and ulna) • Pivot (humerus, ulna and radius) • Ellipsoid (radiocarpal joint) • Ball-and-socket (femur in pelvis) • Plane (4th and 5th metacarpals, 2 flat surfaces on each other) • Saddle (trapezium and first metacarpal) • Condyloid (tibiofemural joint) Rotational axis • In a joint, the rotational axis is not fixed • When we analyse movements, always assume the rotational axis is in the same place Cartilage • Non-vascularized tissue found in different parts of the body, mostly in joints • 3 types: hyaline, fibrous and elastic Joint injuries • Arthritis: hundreds of inflammatory illnesses that touch joints, doesn’t always cause pain • Arthrosis: Most common chronic arthritis, mostly related to age and occurs in a degenerative manner, can affect both joints but normally is worse on one side than the other • Rheumatoid arthritis: auto-immune disease of the conjunctive tissues with a strong inflammatory component, causes destruction of joints, normally occurs symmetrically Ligaments • Keep body balanced and play a mechanical role in maintenance • Dense conjunctive tissues that connect bones and help to stabilize joints • Play a role in proprioception (hard to find proprioception during rehab)
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