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Lecture 2

HSS3106 Lecture 2: Drug Forms

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Health Sciences
Ron Saulnier

HSS 3106 – Lecture #2 Sources of Drug Derivation • Plants • Humans/animals • Minerals • Synthetics • Engineered Solid Drugs • Pills: powdered drugs mixed with liquids and rolled into a round or oval shape • Tablets: powdered form of drugs and bulk-filling material compressed under high pressure which can include different types such as chewable, sublingual, buccal, enteric-coated, buffered and sustained-release • Capsules: gelatin exterior shell containing drug in powder, granule, liquid or combination form • Enteric-coating: prevents capsule or tablet from being dissolved in stomach and reached intestine for absorption • Caplets: capsule shaped form of tablets; film-coating for easy swallowing • Gel caps: oil-based drugs in soft gelatin capsules • Powders: dried and finely ground • Granules: tiny pills usually in gelatin capsules; intended for gradual release • Troches/lozenges: flattened disks which are hard or semisolid Liquid Drugs • Syrups: aqueous solutions containing high sugar concentration - not good for diabetics • Solutions: drugs dissolved in appropriate solvent • Elixirs: solutions of water, alcohol and sugar • Aerosols: oral inhalers or nebulizers for rapid absorption in blood Topical Drugs: Semi-Solids • Creams: aqueous and oily base • Ointments: similar to creams (e.g: Vaseline/Eucerine) • Plasters: combination of liquids and powders that harden when died Topical Drugs: Liquids • Liniments: liquid suspensions for external application to skin • Gels/Jellies: jelly-like substance • Lotions: suspensions of drugs in water base for external use o Creams and ointments are not always convenient since they may be slimy o Suspensions need to be shaken before you give them to someone – you usually put it in a sugary solution  setting of the drug therefore you would need to shake it before using Injected Drugs • Parenteral • Available as powders or solutions • Administered through: intra-articular, intradermal, intramuscular, epidural subcutaneous, or intravenous Other Medication Forms • Ophthalmic: eye drops or ointments • Otic: ear medication • Nasal: nose drops or sprays • Vaginal: solutions, creams, tablets, suppositories • Rectal: suppositories or enemas • Inhalation: anesthetic gases, compressed gases, bronchodilators o Sometime you use medication rectally for something systemic because of their difficult GI tract Routes of Administration • Enteral: absorbed through GI tract through oral, nasogastric/gastrostomy tube, sublingual or buccal o Biologically, oral is not the most efficient but it is the most convenient o Contraindicated if patient is vomiting, has gastric suction, is unconscious or is unable to swallow o Liquid medications are best for children o Nasogastric tube is inserted through nasopharynx and into the stomach (tube from the nose to the stomach is an easier way to get medication into young children) o Gastrostomy tube is surgically places directly into the stomach o Sublingual where it is placed under the tongue for dissolving and is absorbed through the mucus membrane of the mouth and becomes systemic. It is used when rapid action is desired. The most common type of medication would be nitro-glycerine o Buccal where it is placed between the gum and cheek for dissolving. It should not be swallowed ad is often used over sublingual route for sustained-release delivery • Parenteral injected: through intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous or intradermal o Quicker than oral route and irretrievable once injected o Needles: The lower the number of the needle, the bigger the gauge (e.g: 18-26). Most are disposable and made o
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