HSS 3101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Null Hypothesis, Blood Sugar, Literature Review

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Class 2: Health Research
-Research proposal:
oResearch “guidebook” to ethical board
oSpecify problem, elaborate on signicance of research, review related research,
outline appropriate methodology
o“grandma principle” – easy to understand
o“sexy principle” – what interests us now
-Selection of problem:
oNot too broad or narrow
oInterests, values, budget
-Source of problem:
oMust be researchable
oProblems lend themselves to an investigation
Best people to come up with research questions are clinician… How can we
improve on this? Why are we doing it this way?
Or reading an abstract or research paper that says: more research is needed
in this area
-Statement of problem:
oFocus and direction of a problem – can be written as a question or a statement
oIt goes to the research ethics board without you so must be concise and clear
-Research questions:
oUsed in lieu of hypotheses
oAvoid colloquialisms/slang/professional
-Sub problems:
oMinor, related subjects
oCould be a research problem on its own
oCan also be listed as objectives
oContributes to overarching problems
-Limitations: boundaries of the problem established by the factors or people other than
the researcher
-Delimitations: deals with boundaries set by researcher (defend your choices for
oEx: At Carleton, they’re allowed to just look at only English speaking people
-Assumptions: condition that is taken for granted, cannot do research without this
-Denitions of terms: must dene each
term as it relates to the project at hand
-Formulation of hypothesis: logical
guess that provides further direction
oTwo approaches:
Inductive reasoning:
Theory made on
relationships observed
Ex: The more co8ee people drink, the more sweets they eat.
Deductive reasoning:
Begins with a theory then makes prediction on how it can be applied
Ex: ca8eine lowers blood glucose  body requires intake of glucose
oMust be stated clearly, express relationship between one or more variables and
oHypotheses are neither proved or disproved *supported or rejected*
oNull hypothesis: minor di8erences between variables are not signicant
When null hypotheses are rejected, the research hypotheses are accepted
Ex: Sustaining services in
Sub problems: Geographic
location, Human resources,
Equipment, Qualied personnel,
Identify denition of coping
Ex: Coping as a variable:
Positive coping: gamble a lot, like it, have
the money
Negative coping: addicted to gambling, no
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