Gender Considerations in Health and Education

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International Development and Globalization
Sonia Gulati

February 27, 2014 Poverty: North vs. South • As of 2001, more of a decrease of aid into poverty-related issues; occurrences such as 9/11 and the creation of the MDGs (2000). • Though more regions did poverty related work since the 1990s, prior to that, there was more focus on security-related issues and it was hard to get funding for even research. • Political and economic instability, infectious diseases, and large-scale migration is how poverty can lead to serious global problems. • What is dependency theory? o If you keep giving money to developing countries, these countries stray from making actual change as they become dependent on aid. o In general, it is the idea of “core” and “periphery” countries dating back to colonialism that funded the life of core countries. Some countries still benefitting more than others and rely on poor countries to stay that way ie. Control of trade similar to resource extraction during colonialism. o “Core” countries have diversified economies, strong and stable governments, and a large middle class. • If you increase basic education, there is a link with poverty reduction and economic growth and national development. • Up until 2000, only talk of enrollment rate rather than completion rate (a lot fewer students actually complete school than enrollment suggests); completion rate is the better indicator of poverty-reduction. • Education has multiple functions beyond schooling but only gained focus as poverty- reduction method in the 1990s. • Globalisation has had a huge impact on education; o It generates important economic changes that contribute to increasing the importance of education for social mobility and national development. o Thus, investment in human capital especially education is increasingly important to gain economic advantage.  Ability to comfortably communicate/talk/interact with authority figures such as teachers.  Ability to use technologies. • Challenge is that these technologies are often expensive and inaccessible and parents do not have the insight to help students learn these technologies. • Parents may fear that technology may expose their children to “bad things.”  Ability to compete. • Competing professionally while being culturally-sensitive. • Decreases value of education; you need more education to compete with others. • Must extenuate differences in order to appear “unique”, in order to be noticed. • Who is competing? The children or their parents? • 26$ B financing gap; o Stagnating aid to basic education in LICs o Domestic spending on education has increased by 3$ B annually to LICs but that’s only half of what is actually required to achieve EFA (education for all). o Solutions; tax the rich, increase aid, philanthropic organizations to not exclude education (currently focus more on healthcare) • On a development perspective, training must be given to paraprofessionals, such as locals to become teachers (so they can implement a classroom). o Even in healthcare, teaching basic skills can be passed along through word-of- mouth to community and decrease their medical costs. • Poverty relief is short-term assistance to address basic survival needs, while poverty reduction is a long-term process by which the causes of deprivation and inequity and root causes of poverty are addressed. o Poverty relief is important as often countries don’t have the basic start-ups or know how to use it. It is especially important in times of crisis. o However, it is a short-term fix that doesn’t actually speak of reducing poverty. o Poverty reduction focuses on capacity-building and other such strategies. o Humanitarian groups focus on poverty relief while philanthropic groups focus on poverty reduction. • Strategies for povert
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