Disability, and Health and Education in International Development (II)

7 Pages
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Department
International Development and Globalization
Course Code
DVM2110
Professor
Sonia Gulati

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March 13, 2014 • In developed countries, o More women are completing post-secondary education than men. o More women with disabilities are completing post-secondary school education than men with disabilities.  Note that it is more likely that they complete a college education than university education. • Access to primary school education globally—barriers; o (B) = relevant to both but more relevant for one gender o Women;  Other household roles  Sanitation facilities  Safety in classroom and to and from school  Learning style  Language barrier  Social preferences  Living in rural/remote area (B)  Fewer families invest in girls’ education o Men;  Corporal punishment (B)  Learning style  Language barrier  Social preferences  Living in rural/remote area • Strategies to improve education for girls; o Implementing girls-only school buses  Ie. Happened in Turkey—parents pulled their girls out of school for fears for their safety. They would prefer them to walk with a friend than bus. o Altering education policies and rectifying discrimination  Ie. Encouraging the use of uniforms o Expanding opportunities for in-school meals o Setting up scholarships for girls o Improving sanitation/bathroom facilities and setting up private, gendered facilities o Having someone escort girls to and from school o Parent-outreach programmes (networking with families to encourage them to send girls to school) o Financing transportation programmes o Gender-separate schooling (?)  May be good in the short-term to encourage girls to go to school, but, in the long-term, this may prevail gender inequalities. Whether this is good or bad is goal-specific; • Girls’ schools tend to be of inferior quality, in terms of infrastructure and quality of education (ie. Pakistan) Disability and International Development Introduction • Developed countries have more children with disability than underdeveloped countries. o How do we approach disability in developed countries vs. developing countries? • Most writings about disability from the Global North. • In ID, disabilities often expressed as a secondary issue, talking about them after primary issues such as war/conflict and poverty. o 15% living across the world with disability. o Not mentioned within the MDGs. Representation of disability • Wheelchair seen as the ‘ultimate’ sign of disability—historical ranking of disability. o Mental health disability in the bottom ranking, seen as not much of a disability. VIDEO Romanticising Disability o All those performing in video are hearing-impaired, yet were very in sync with music.  Used vibrations to stay in sync. o Using this method to raise awareness;  GOOD—it shows those with disability can still accomplish things and reduces feelings of hopelessness surrounding disability.  GOOD—it’s fascinating to see, as it involves the disabled doing something that they would not be expected to do.  GOOD—did not look down on the disabled but, instead, was celebratory and inclusive. • In literature, disability presented in two extremes; o “Please help” method showing disability as something really bad that requires help. o “Romanticizing” method highlighting special cases where those with disability show good performance.  However, this glamourizes disability (as an ideal) without referencing context. Variations in the experience of being ill • In the Western world, tend to see illness as empirically caused and mechanically or chemically treatable. o Separation between mind, body, and spirit. • In the non-Western world, non-empirical explanations and cures for disease seem to dominate. o Illness seen as a combination of spiritual, mental, and physical phenomena.  Ie. Karma, black magic, curses, etc.  Concept of disability socially-created and influences resuscitative efforts and treatment. • May be impacted by social status, cultural background, etc. • Disability defined as an umbrella term for impairments of body structures and functions, activity limitations or participation restrictions. o Do you think everyone has a disability to some extent?  NO—disability is a political and human rights issue, not something that impacts everyone. Not everyone has a right to programmes geared toward the disabled. • Like the concept of “relative poverty,” however it is not fair to label
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