March 13, 2014
• In developed countries,
o More women are completing post-secondary education than men.
o More women with disabilities are completing post-secondary school education
than men with disabilities.
Note that it is more likely that they complete a college education than
• Access to primary school education globally—barriers;
o (B) = relevant to both but more relevant for one gender
Other household roles
Safety in classroom and to and from school
Living in rural/remote area (B)
Fewer families invest in girls’ education
Corporal punishment (B)
Living in rural/remote area
• Strategies to improve education for girls;
o Implementing girls-only school buses
Ie. Happened in Turkey—parents pulled their girls out of school for fears
for their safety. They would prefer them to walk with a friend than bus.
o Altering education policies and rectifying discrimination Ie. Encouraging the use of uniforms
o Expanding opportunities for in-school meals
o Setting up scholarships for girls
o Improving sanitation/bathroom facilities and setting up private, gendered facilities
o Having someone escort girls to and from school
o Parent-outreach programmes (networking with families to encourage them to
send girls to school)
o Financing transportation programmes
o Gender-separate schooling (?)
May be good in the short-term to encourage girls to go to school, but, in
the long-term, this may prevail gender inequalities. Whether this is good
or bad is goal-specific;
• Girls’ schools tend to be of inferior quality, in terms of
infrastructure and quality of education (ie. Pakistan)
Disability and International Development
• Developed countries have more children with disability than underdeveloped countries.
o How do we approach disability in developed countries vs. developing countries?
• Most writings about disability from the Global North.
• In ID, disabilities often expressed as a secondary issue, talking about them after primary
issues such as war/conflict and poverty.
o 15% living across the world with disability.
o Not mentioned within the MDGs.
Representation of disability
• Wheelchair seen as the ‘ultimate’ sign of disability—historical ranking of disability.
o Mental health disability in the bottom ranking, seen as not much of a disability.
VIDEO Romanticising Disability
o All those performing in video are hearing-impaired, yet were very in sync with
Used vibrations to stay in sync.
o Using this method to raise awareness; GOOD—it shows those with disability can still accomplish things and
reduces feelings of hopelessness surrounding disability.
GOOD—it’s fascinating to see, as it involves the disabled doing
something that they would not be expected to do.
GOOD—did not look down on the disabled but, instead, was celebratory
• In literature, disability presented in two extremes;
o “Please help” method showing disability as something really bad that requires
o “Romanticizing” method highlighting special cases where those with disability
show good performance.
However, this glamourizes disability (as an ideal) without referencing
Variations in the experience of being ill
• In the Western world, tend to see illness as empirically caused and mechanically or
o Separation between mind, body, and spirit.
• In the non-Western world, non-empirical explanations and cures for disease seem to
o Illness seen as a combination of spiritual, mental, and physical phenomena.
Ie. Karma, black magic, curses, etc.
Concept of disability socially-created and influences resuscitative efforts
• May be impacted by social status, cultural background, etc.
• Disability defined as an umbrella term for impairments of body structures and functions,
activity limitations or participation restrictions.
o Do you think everyone has a disability to some extent?
NO—disability is a political and human rights issue, not something that
impacts everyone. Not everyone has a right to programmes geared
toward the disabled.
• Like the concept of “relative poverty,” however it is not fair to label