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Lecture 3

MUS1301 Lecture Notes - Johannes Brahms, Program Music, Ternary Form
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4 Pages
83 Views
Winter 2017

Department
Music
Course Code
MUS 1301
Professor
Robertrival
Lecture
3

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The Classical and Romantic Periods of Music History
- Correspond to the late 18th and 19th centuries
- Works form the basis of the core repertory today
- Not easily divided into two periods; thus, Beethoven’s music is often considered a bridge
between the Classical and Romantic eras
Classical Music
- “Classical”=provided a model for later generations
- Important developments: formation of the modern orchestra, emergence of genres such as
comic opera, and concert-going becomes a social activity
The Classical Audience
- Influence of entrepreneurs and the middle class in popularizing concerts
- Most music still written for aristocratic patrons or for the church
- Opera remained the most popular “public” genre, but growth of amateur private music-making
becomes more important
Instruments of the Classical Repertory
Piano: slowly replaced the harpsichord and clavichord
Clarinet: introduced to the orchestra
Abandonment of older instruments (e.g., viola da gamba and oboe da caccia)
Orchestral instruments have changed, but the orchestra itself is essentially the same now as in
the Classical period
Musical Elements of the Classical Repertory
Forms: tend to be clear and relatively straightforward
Contrasts: quick changes in timbre used to add complexity and interest
Rhythm: steady meter, but occasional disruptive rhythmic displacement
Texture: varies, but little use of basso continuo in comparison to Baroque era
Phrases: short sections, usually of approx. equal length—“building blocks”
Motive: very short, memorable unit that can be repeated and developed
Mozart’s Serenade No 10. Gran partita
- Written for wind ensemble
- Inventive use of tone color
- Expressive depth overlaid by surface simplicity
Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro
- Aria: song
R- ecitative: speech-like style designed to move the plot along
- “Dove sono”: contrasts the emotional text with the balanced, elegant, and noble text.
Designed to demonstrate what sort of character the Countess is.
- Blend of form and function, depth and tranquility, just like the Classical style
Haydn’s String Quartet in B-flat Major
- Mozart’s older, funnier contemporary, especially fond of using humor
- Breaks with convention and foils expectations to create jokes
- “beginning with an ending,” followed by passages that seem interminable, harmonic
surprises, shifting tempi
Focus on Joseph Haydn
- Austrian composer who became the most celebrated composer of his time
- Respected throughout Europe, admired as one of the “Viennese Classics”
- Excelled in every musical genre, but is known as the father of both the symphony and the
string quartet for his contributions to those genres
- Combines wit, originality of form, and earnest feeling
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find more resources at oneclass.com The Classical and Romantic Periods of Music History - Correspond to the late 18th and 19th centuries - Works form the basis of the core repertory today - Not easily divided into two periods; thus, Beethoven’s music is often considered a bridge between the Classical and Romantic eras Classical Music - “Classical”=provided a model for later generations - Important developments: formation of the modern orchestra, emergence of genres such as comic opera, and concert-going becomes a social activity The Classical Audience - Influence of entrepreneurs and the middle class in popularizing concerts - Most music still written for aristocratic patrons or for the church - Opera remained the most popular “public” genre, but growth of amateur private music-making becomes more important Instruments of the Classical Repertory Piano: slowly replaced the harpsichord and clavichord Clarinet: introduced to the orchestra Abandonment of older instruments (e.g., viola da gamba and oboe da caccia) Orchestral instruments have changed, but the orchestra itself is essentially the same now as in the Classical period Musical Elements of the Classical Repertory Forms: tend to be clear and relatively straightforward Contrasts: quick changes in timbre used to add complexity and interest Rhythm: steady meter, but occasional disruptive rhythmic displacement Texture: varies, but little use of basso continuo in comparison to Baroque era Phrases: short sections, usually of approx. equal length—“building blocks” Motive: very short, memorable unit that can be repeated and developed Mozart’s Serenade No 10. Gran partita - Written for wind ensemble - Inventive use of tone color - Expressive depth overlaid by surface simplicity Mozart’s The Marriage of Figaro - Aria: song R- ecitative: speech-like style designed to move the plot along - “Dove sono”: contrasts the emotional text with the balanced, elegant, and noble text. Designed to demonstrate what sort of character the Countess is. - Blend of form and function, depth and tranquility, just like the Classical style Haydn’s String Quartet in B-flat Major - Mozart’s older, funnier contemporary, especially fond of using humor - Breaks with convention and foils expectations to create jokes - “beginning with an ending,” followed by passages that seem interminable, harmonic surprises, shifting tempi Focus on Joseph Haydn - Austrian composer who became the most celebrated composer of his time - Respected throughout Europe, admired as one of the “Viennese Classics” - Excelled in every musical genre, but is known as the father of both the symphony and the string quartet for his contributions to those genres - Combines wit, originality of form, and earnest feeling find more resources at oneclass.com find more resources at oneclass.com - Music often reflects the Enlightenment ideal of rational conversation Beethoven’s Symphony No. 5 - Repetition of material in all movements makes them seem to “belong together” - Frequently interpreted as a narrative of triumphant struggle - Beethoven The Symphony as Musical Storytelling The opening, according to Beethoven: “thus fate pounds at the gate” Other interpretations: Morse code for V or 5; “V for victory,” etc. Example of the Eroica, autobiographical elements Beethoven’s growing deafness as mentally devastating and socially isolating Narrative contour: dynamic formal trajectory that can suggest a story Violent contrasts, intensity of expression, per aspera ad astra Focus on Ludwig van Beethoven Extended the Classical tradition before embarking on an individual style Probably the best-known and most widely respected composer in the history of Western music; the larger-than-life inventor of the musical world in the West The appeal of Beethoven depends on his ability to express fundamental conflicts of the human condition; many Romantic composers who followed extended this vision Romantic Music - Rooted in the late 18th century, perhaps beginning with the French Revolution or with the writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau; product of a belief in human potential combined with a belief that reason and science were insufficient Importance of personal experience, direct expression of ideas, and artistic or aesthetic truth The Romantic Audience - Establishment of civic orchestras and regular public concerts in Europe and the Americas - Continued growth of the middle class and the ideals of social accomplishment brought about
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