Class Notes (867,167)
CA (523,475)
UOttawa (34,192)
MUS (154)
MUS1301 (24)
Lecture 1

MUS1301 Lecture 1: lecture 1 notes

5 Pages

Course Code

This preview shows pages 1 and half of page 2. Sign up to view the full 5 pages of the document.

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade. are saying about us

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
find more resources at LECTURE 1- PHARMACOLOGY Properties of an ideal drug Pharmacology- a science that draws on info from multiple  Therapeutic objective: disciplines, anatomy, physiology, psych, chem, microbio maximum benefit with Pharmacology informs all aspects of clinical drug use minimum harm 1. Effectiveness: elicits  How drugs produce therapeutic and adverse effects Reponses for which it is given  Reasons for giving a particular drug to a particular pt 2. Safety: minimal harmful  Rational for selection of dosage, route and schedule of effects (ideally none) administration 3. Selectivity: elicits only  Strategies to promote beneficial drug effects response for which drug given  Strategies to minimize undesired effects 4. Reversibility: action subsides  Provide drug related patient education appropriately 5. Predictability: know how the Individual variation in drug response pt will respond  No two patients respond identically to same drug 6. Ease of administration regimen 7. Freedom from drug drug o DDI, physiologic variables, pathologic variable interactions (diminished kidney/liver function), genetic 8. Low cost 9. Chemical stability factors  Tailor drug therapy to individual 10. Simple generic name- for effective communication Factors determining drug response  Administration, pharmacokinetics,  Preadministration assessment pharmacodynamics  Dosage and administration  Evaluating and promoting therapeutic effects Pharmacology in Nursing Practice  Minimize ADR, minimize DDI Nursing responsibilities regarding drugs  Make PRN decisions  Manage toxicity  Right drug, patient, dose, route, time, documentation Application of pharmacology in patient care  Pharmacokinetics- what the body does to the drug  Absorption o See chart on slide 22 o Drug mvmt from site of administration into blood, may require crossage of membranes  Distribution o Tight junctions in walls of CNS capillaries prevent drugs from leaving the blood and reaching the brain/ Absent in other capillary systems o Only drugs that are lipid soluble or have transport system can cross the BBB o Drugs that can cross the placenta can sometime cause serious harm- THALIDOMIDE o Protein Binding  Drugs bind reversibly with various blood proteins, most importantly plasma albumin find more resources at find more resources at  Albumin always remains in the bloodstream  Drugs bound to albumin can’t reach their sites of action  Metabolism o Liver  Convert pharmacologically active compounds to inactive forms  Activation of prodrugs (inactive  active)  Increase therapeutic action of some drugs  Decrease toxicity o Kidney  Accelerate kidney excretion of highly lipid souble drugs, converting them into more polar compounds o Special considerations  Age (infants and elderly)  Nutritional status, drug metabolizing enzymes need cofactors from diet  First Pass effect  If you give a drug orally and enters the bloodstream, the first organ it hits is the liver  Rapid hepatic inactivation of an oral drug o Drug metabolizing enzymes in liver  Hepatic microsomal enzymes (cytochrome P450)  Important: CYP1, CYP2, CYP3  Each has multiple drug specific isoenzymes  Responsible for 75% of all drug metabolism o Drugs can be…  Enzyme substrates- metabolized by an isoenzyme  Enzyme inducer- inc rates of metabolism of a substrate drug  Enzyme inhibitor- decrease rates of metabolism of a substrate drug o  Excretion o Bile: secreted by the liver into small intestine and then leaves body in feces o Urine: kidney is major organ o Breast milk- exposes nursing infant to drugs o Exhaled air- lungs major route for volatile anesthetics o Sweat and saliva Time Course of Drug Responses  Minimum effective concentration (MEC) o Plasma drug level below which therapeutic effect will not occur  Therapeutic range o Between MEC and toxic concentration o Drugs with a wide therapeutic range are easier to use safely  Drug half life o Time required for the amount of drug in the body to
More Less
Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Only pages 1 and half of page 2 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document
Subscribers Only

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.