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Lecture 7

MUS 1301 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Concerto Grosso, Sonata Form, Rondo

Course Code
MUS 1301
Genvieve Bazinet

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Classical era (1750-1820)-
Coincides with the enlightenment- pursuit of natural laws, emergence of science vs. Religion
Emergence of middle class pride, middle class began to challenge higher ups with their virtues (middle
class seen as heroes)
More natural (working man) appearance became the norm rather than extravagant wigs and attire, to
reflect the more confident and more popular middle class
Age of Reason gave way to the age of Revolution end of 18th century
Middle class now began to hold and attend concerts (two tiered price system to include a range of
Mid 18th century- first time a commercialized shared musical experience was introduced (concert
today as we know it)
Anyone who could pay and was well dressed would be admitted to public concerts- leveled out the
New opera style brought in- opera buffa (comic opera) which valued the middle class champions and
the daily struggle of the average man
"The Marriage of Figaro" 1786- a barber outwits a count and exposes him to public ridicule (Mozart?)
Middle class also wanted to play their own music at home: the rise of the piano in the mid 1700s,
replaced the harpsichord gradually
Mostly amateur women played the piano, seen as a trait suitable for marriage
As women were seen as still subordinate- "simpler" keyboard music books were developed for women
to play at home
-Simple and short (singable)
-Balanced with antecedent consequent (question answer)
-Contrasts the extravagant Baroque melodies
-More homophonic songs, simple harmony
-Harmonic rhythm is more fluid and flexible, no more walking bass
-Alberti Bass: spreads out pitches of a chord to create a continual stream of sound.
-More flexible
-Stop and go character
-lighter, more transparent sound in middle range
-More homophonic
Focus on the melody
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The mood of the music changes mid song, does not just stick with one mood or theme as seen in the
Baroque - drama added to music
Crescendos and Decrescendo's used for the first time (helped by piano)
Vienna was a great city of music and art: many more noblemen than London or Paris, Haydn, Mozart
and Beethoven all moved there, today spends more than any city on its Opera every year
Franz Joseph Haydn:
Rags to riches story- born in a farmhouse, brought into a Cathedral choir as a child
After he was replaced, he worked as a freelance musician around Vienna
Esterhazy family hired him, very rich noble family (orchestra, chapel choir, theatre for opera)
Hayden began selling his works to others, while remaining at the family house
1790, the prince died and Hayden was free to leave with a life pension
Travelled to London and wrote his "London symphonies" - performed in Londons newest concert halls
Treated as a celebrity
Symphony No. 94, "Surprise Symphony"
-Divisions represented by changes in theme, instrumentation, and volume
-full orchestra, extended ternary form (third movement)
-Slightly alters the A part after the B part
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:
Born in Austria, father played violin and taught Mozart music - age of six played piano violin organ and
Many impressive feats at a young age, wrote first symphony at age 8
First opera at age 12
He was exposed to many musical styles at a young age, helped to develop his own composition skills
After remaining in Salzburg for a few years with the Archbishop, Mozart moved to more extravagant
lifestyles in Vienna
Busy life: Taught pupils, composed, had several concerts a week
Wrote two famous operas: "Marriage of Figaro" and "Don Giovanni"
Mozarts music them became too dense, and therefore unpopular with Viennese nobility
Died unexpectedly at the age of 35
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik: (A Little Night Music)
-Minuet - trio - minuet
-thinner texture in the trio
-Sonata Allegro Form (first movement) or ternary (third movement)
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