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Lecture 7

MUS1301 Lecture 7: MUS1301 - classical era

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Genvieve Bazinet

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Classical era (1750-1820)-  Coincides with the enlightenment- pursuit of natural laws, emergence of science vs. Religion  Emergence of middle class pride, middle class began to challenge higher ups with their virtues (middle class seen as heroes)  More natural (working man) appearance became the norm rather than extravagant wigs and attire, to reflect the more confident and more popular middle class  Age of Reason gave way to the age of Revolution end of 18th century  Middle class now began to hold and attend concerts (two tiered price system to include a range of incomes)  Mid 18th century- first time a commercialized shared musical experience was introduced (concert today as we know it)  Anyone who could pay and was well dressed would be admitted to public concerts- leveled out the classes  New opera style brought in- opera buffa (comic opera) which valued the middle class champions and the daily struggle of the average man  "The Marriage of Figaro" 1786- a barber outwits a count and exposes him to public ridicule (Mozart?)  Middle class also wanted to play their own music at home: the rise of the piano in the mid 1700s, replaced the harpsichord gradually  Mostly amateur women played the piano, seen as a trait suitable for marriage  As women were seen as still subordinate- "simpler" keyboard music books were developed for women to play at home Elements:  Melody: -Simple and short (singable) -Balanced with antecedent consequent (question answer) -Contrasts the extravagant Baroque melodies  Harmony: -More homophonic songs, simple harmony -Harmonic rhythm is more fluid and flexible, no more walking bass -Alberti Bass: spreads out pitches of a chord to create a continual stream of sound.  Rhythm: -More flexible -Stop and go character  Texture: -lighter, more transparent sound in middle range -More homophonic Focus on the melody  The mood of the music changes mid song, does not just stick with one mood or theme as seen in the Baroque - drama added to music  Crescendos and Decrescendo's used for the first time (helped by piano)  Vienna was a great city of music and art: many more noblemen than London or Paris, Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven all moved there, today spends more than any city on its Opera every year Franz Joseph Haydn:  Rags to riches story- born in a farmhouse, brought into a Cathedral choir as a child  After he was replaced, he worked as a freelance musician around Vienna  Esterhazy family hired him, very rich noble family (orchestra, chapel choir, theatre for opera)  Hayden began selling his works to others, while remaining at the family house  1790, the prince died and Hayden was free to leave with a life pension  Travelled to London and wrote his "London symphonies" - performed in Londons newest concert halls  Treated as a celebrity  Humble  Symphony No. 94, "Surprise Symphony" -Divisions represented by changes in theme, instrumentation, and volume -full orchestra, extended ternary form (third movement) -Slightly alters the A part after the B part Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart:  Born in Austria, father played violin and taught Mozart music - age of six played piano violin organ and composed  Many impressive feats at a young age, wrote first symphony at age 8  First opera at age 12  He was exposed to many musical styles at a young age, helped to develop his own composition skills  After remaining in Salzburg for a few years with the Archbishop, Mozart moved to more extravagant lifestyles in Vienna  Busy life: Taught pupils, composed, had several concerts a week  Wrote two famous operas: "Marriage of Figaro" and "Don Giovanni"  Mozarts music them became too dense, and therefore unpopular with Viennese nobility  Died unexpectedly at the age of 35  Eine Kleine Nachtmusik: (A Little Night Music) -Minuet - trio - minuet - ABA - CDC - ABA -thinner texture in the trio -Sonata Allegro Form (first movement) or ternary (third movement) Forms:  Ternary form: (ABA) -home-away-home -Minuets mostly written in ternary form -Minuets played by symphonys: three parts (symphony ABA trio CDC symphony ABA) -
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