PAP 2300 Lecture Notes - Economic Forecasting, Exosphere, International Monetary Fund
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Public Administration, Institutions, and Law
Factors Influencing Organisational Structure
Gregory Inwood: 3 Major Factors:
a. Capitalist Democracy
- Canada is a capitalist state, meaning it’s more pro-market. Influenced by
- P3 Canada Inc – public-private partnership – created to ensure the market
influences government’s decisions and actions.
- Key issue: Private Property rights
- Collective Rights
b. The Federal System
- Two basic systems in different countries: Unitary System – ex: Britain,
and Federal System – ex: Canada, USA
- One central government
- A political organisation in which the activities of government are divided
between regional governments and a central government in such a way that
each kind of government has some kind of activities on which it makes final
- Each level of government has more or less complete authority over
specific spheres of activities.
- The various levels of government (regional, central) obtain their respective
powers from the country’s constitution and not from each other.
- Citizens owe some loyalty to more than one level of government, and both
levels may act directly on the citizens.
c. Cabinet-Parliamentary System
- Executive – Legislature – Judicial: are all separate in US, strict separation
of power. Checks and balances – checking each separate entity, each one
checks the others.
- In Canada, the Executive and Legislature are not separate, they are
fused. Judicial is independent.
- Executive branch: under this branch is the Crown/Queen, Governor
General, and Cabinet. Section 9 of the Canadian Constitution says that the
Executive government and the authority of and over Canada is vested in the
The Bureaucratic Executive
- Section 9 of the Canadian Constitution says that the Executive
government and the authority of and over Canada is vested in the Queen.
Queen – Governor General.
- Constitutionally, the elected executive of the federal government is
responsible for formulating and implementing public policies.
- The process of implementing these policies is entrusted to permanent
state officials employed by the government.
- The Executive Branch is governed by the Queen
- The bureaucracy is part of an arm of the executive branch. Its duty is to
implement policies that are made by the cabinet. It also provides a bias on the
formulation of the policies to the cabinet.
- The only thing that parliament can’t do is change a man into a woman.
They can do anything else they want.
- The Cabinet is comprised of the current (cabinet) ministers.
- Constitutes the real executive power in Canada.
- All public servants act under the direction and control of the Cabinet.
- The Cabinet is accountable to parliament and may continue to govern only
as long as they retain the confidence of parliament.
- In parliamentary democracy, parliament is the most important institution.
- This branch receives its power to govern from the legislature. The
executive branch is accountable to the Legislative Branch. Government needs
the approval of parliament to legitimize its policies and activities, particularly for
the expenditure of public funds.
The Judicial Branch
- Consists of the Supreme Court and all other courts, and judges below it in
the federal and provincial court system.
- The Supreme Court rules in disputes or conflicts about the Constitution or
The Bureaucratic Executive
a. Operating Departments or Ministries
b. Crown Corporations
c. Regulatory Agencies
d. Semi-Independent Agencies
e. Advisory Bodies
Departments or Ministries
- *A department is an administrative unit in comprising one or more organisational
components over which a minister has direct management and control.
- Ex: Jim Flarhaty is the minister of the Finance Ministry.
- Under the Constitution, ministers are supposed to have close and direct control over
the actions of a department. This differs from the Minister’s relationship with
regulation agencies and crown corporations. Arm’s length relationship – farther than
“direct” – responsible, but not accountable.