PAP 3350 Lecture Notes - Mothers Against Drunk Driving, De Jure, Public Choice

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Oct 29, 2012
Policy Instruments
Things ppl are making choices
GUIDING QUESTIONS
What are policy instruments?
Are all policy instruments the same?
Why some policy instruments and not others?
Why public policy
Public policies as a means to fix failures and fix economic, social, or political problems
People may lack the necessary incentives to act
People may lack the necessary capacity to act
People may disagree on values that underpin means
Situations may involve a lot of uncertainty
o Economics: taught us that theres market failures.
o Ppl lack to do some things... ex: do we want to pay taxes, no but we are forced cause of the law
and jail time, we want to avoid the penalty.
o Lack of capacity to act.. yu have the will to act, but u have a lack of resources to act. Ex: help ppl
make their houses more energy efficient to save money on their bills. But sometimes ppl lack
the necessary money to invest in fixing their house to make it energy efficient.
o Sometimes ppl can disagree on needs and on the values, this complicates policy choices.
Policy Instruments
Tools used to overcome problems and achieve objectives
Tools used to influence behaviour
Methods used by governments to achieve a desired effect
They include:
Frameworks, policies, programs, directives, standards, information bulletins, and
guidelines
Market-based instruments, regulations, legal requirements, research, technology
o Particular ways the u can deals with certified problems to achieve objectives.
o Tools used to influence our behaviour. Encourage our behaviour to pay for things on times...
o Some sort of authority choices in order to accomplish goals to resolve problems... they include a
lot of things... frameworks, policies,... crafted in certain ways to resolve certain problems.
o Policy instruments involves a wide range of items, which makes its a cool study on why certain
instruments are chosen, they vary...
POLICY INSTRUMENTS
ALL INSTRUMENTS ARE:
An authoritative choice
A means to accomplish a purpose
Designed to encourage (or discourage) certain behaviour
A response to a defined problem
INSTRUMENTS VARY:
“Coercion continuum” – aka the degree of intervention
Assumptions of human behaviour
o A means to accomplish: underlining objective,
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o Designed to encourage: Oriented to try to make us do or do not do something
o Instruments vary on 2 key dimensions: Coercion continuum: state intervention, how much is the
state pushing u to do something or not to do something. 2- Assumption: the degree to which
you think what ppl do or do not do something, whos the target of the instrument it self, do u
think ppl are inclined to do something...
Consider the problems
What is the severity of the problem?
Who is being affected?
How important is it to decision-makers?
Who has the legitimate authority to act?
o 1- if a problem is more seveire, or more salient, the degree of intervention of the state may go
up, the state will be more motivated to resolve the problem.
NOT ALL INSTRUMENTS ARE ALIKE
Different assumptions of human behaviour
Different assumptions about what can be done
Different assumptions about who should do it
Different assumptions about coerciveness
o Instruments vary on the assumptions of human behaviour, ....
N.A.T.O
Four Contextual Things That Influence Instruments
NODALITY
How central is the government
AUTHORITY
Government’s legal power and other sources of legitimacy
TREASURE
Determines the financial aspects of government
ORGANIZATION
Government capacity for direct action
o Used to try to think about wat is required to put in places the policy. Influenced by the resources
required to put them into place.
o N : attention to how important the gov itself to the particular program. Is the gov providing the
program service, are they at the center point, how much info are the giving
o A: the gov legal authority and sources of legitimacy.
o T: money, how much is required...
o O: what is the gov capacity for direct action, do they have admin processes and regulation
A Typology of Instruments
EVERT VERDUNG’S CLASSIFICATION
Carrots
Sticks
Sermons
Carrots
Inducements and incentives
ASSUMPTIONS
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valued goods might not emerge without incentives
incentives elicit performance
commonality of interests
COERCIVENESS: medium
INTERVENTION: medium
EXAMPLE: tax credits or grants
o 1-they rely on tangible and positive pay offs to encourage citizen from that type of province. Its
it not prohibitding the actions involved.
o Increasing your capacity to act.
o Valued goods might not emerges... Incentives might not get certain performance. Ppl want to do
something if u allow them to do so.
o Coerciveness: medium to low, in the sense that if we don’t chose to use the carrot, thats our
own choice, however if we don’t use it we have less benefits then those who chose to use it.
o Intervention: the state is identifying specific types of programs or options it prefers. Ex: fed gov
desire to decrease child obesity rates, taxes credits to fams to participate in sports are given to
deal with it.
Sticks
Authority tools to compel behaviour backed by sanctions
ASSUMPTIONS
People motivated to obey laws or can be compelled to act
People will avoid actions that are costly
Negative behaviours are choices that can be deterred
COERCIVENESS: maximum
INTERVENTION: high
EXAMPLE: drug laws
o State using its legitimate authority to apply coercion on ppl. Putting ppl in prision
o Ex: parking in places u shouldn’t... you get a ticket if u do it, ppl will avoid actions that are costly,
so they wont park illegally cuz they don’t want a fine.
o Ex: drug laws... ppl would do lots of drug if there were not strict laws on their use. Drug laws
varies on what you are talking about. If you are caught outside a school selling to underage
children, you will have strict penalties. Distinction between social harm and individual harm...,
operating into black market, issue of protecting children, they are not as capable at making
decisions, easier to attract children then adults.
Sermons
Information provided to citizens and target populations
ASSUMPTIONS:
If you know it, you will change
No need for coercion people can choose
COERCIVENESS: minimal
INTERVENTION: low
EXAMPLE: Mothers Against Drunk Driving;
o Purely information based.
o If u know it, u will change ur behaviour.
o No need for coercion, if ppl know the information, they will act and make decisions.
o Ex: the graphics on cigarette packaging. Gov has the policy to put those pictures. Info on its own
isn’t enough to get ppl to stop tho, because the inner addiction takes power...
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