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Lecture 17

PHI 1101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Thrasymachus, Presupposition, Enthymeme


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHI 1101
Professor
Laura Byrne
Lecture
17

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Thursday, November 10, 2016
Chapter 4
Hypothetical Syllogism
sometimes called a chain argument
If p then q
If q then r
Therefore, if p then r
If Lassie is a collie, then she is a dog.
If Lassie is a dog, then she is man’s best friend.
Therefore, if lassie is a collie, then she is man’s best friend.
if it rains, then we stay inside.
if we stay inside, then we watch a movie.
Therefore, if it rains, then we watch a movie.
Reconstructing Arguments
Identifying:
the premises
the conclusion
the relationship between them
Difficulties:
premises and conclusions are not usually neat labeled
premises and conclusions are not always singled by premise and conclusion indicators
Arguments are often embedded in extraneous material
Guidelines to Reconstructing the Argument:
The specific words in the reconstruction needn't be the actual words used by the
author
!1
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Thursday, November 10, 2016
It may be necessary to revise the words used to clarify the meaning or remove
ambiguity
Do not violate the author’s intent or the Principal of Charity
Rep. Bk. I 338e-339a
And in each city this element is stronger, namely, the ruler?
Certainly.
And each makes laws to its own advantage. Democracy makes democratic laws, tyranny makes tyrannical laws, and
so on with the others. And they declare what they have made – what is to their own advantage – to be just for their
subjects, and they punish anyone who goes against this as lawless and unjust. This, then is what I say justice is, the
same in all cities, the advantage of the established rule. Since the established rule is surely stronger, anyone who
reasons correctly will conclude that the just is the same everywhere, namely, the advantage of the stronger.
Thrasymachus: Justice is the Advantage of the Stronger
Premise One: The stronger are the rulers.
Premise Two: The rulers make the laws.
Premise Three: The rulers make the laws to their own advantage.
Premise Four: The laws constitute what is just
Conclusion: Justice is the advantage of the stronger.
Conventions:
The Conclusion: underline and represent by C (C1,C2,etc. in the case of a sorites)
The Premises: enclose in brackets and represent by P1, P2, P3, etc.
Missing Premises: represent by MPx
Missing Conclusion: represent by MC (MCx in the case of a sorites)
ex: [All men are mortal](P1). [Socrates is a man](P2). Socrates is mortal (C).
Rep. Bk. I 338e-339a
[And in each city this element is stronger, namely, the ruler?] (P1)
Certainly.
[And each makes laws to its own advantage.] (P2 & P3) Democracy makes democratic laws,
tyranny makes tyrannical laws, and so on with the others. [And they declare what they have
made – what is to their own advantage – to be just for their subjects, and they punish anyone
who goes against this as lawless and unjust] (P4). This, then is what I say justice is, the same
in all cities, the advantage of the established rule. Since the established rule is surely stronger,
anyone who reasons correctly will conclude that the just is the same everywhere, namely, the
advantage of the stronger (C).
!2
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
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